The Characteristics and Patterns of Smoking for Japanese Men Hospitalized with Cardiovascular Disease
- Author(s): Okada, Ayako
- Advisor(s): Froelicher, Erika S
- et al.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major health problem in Japan. Among the risk factors for CVD, cigarette smoking is the strongest and smoking cessation reduces mortality, morbidity, hospital readmissions, restenosis after coronary revascularizations, and the need for coronary artery bypass surgery. A few of patients sustained smoking cessation after hospital discharge. The aim of this study of Japanese men who were hospitalized with CVD was to explore the demographic and clinical characteristics of smokers, their pattern of smoking, knowledge of smoking, and past attempts to quit. The data were collected individual interview based on a questionnaire. The questionnaire included modified Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) core questionnaire (CDC, 2008; GTSS, 2010), Smoking and Health Problem Questionnaire (Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1999), Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence, Minnesota Withdrawal Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Enriched Social Support Instrument, and Confidence questionnaire.
A cross-sectional study of 104 men smokers who were hospitalized CVD was conducted in four Japanese hospitals that specialize in cardiovascular disease in Japan. Mean age was 60.6 (±13.5) years, most (55.7%) were 60 or over. Almost half of the men had high school or some college or diploma education, and one third had a bachelors or graduate degree and most (60%) were married. Half of the sample was admitted because of AP or MI (46.1%), 14.4% admitted because of CHF and 11.5% admitted because of arrhythmias. Most subjects (about 80%) were moderately to high nicotine dependent. Their knowledge of smoking and its effect on their health was limited. Two third of participant made at least one quit attempt in the past and most of them used self-help methods and less utilized pharmacological treatment. The nurses were less likely than physician to offer smoking cessation intervention.
Pearson correlation confident test were performed to examine relationship among selected variables. Withdrawal symptoms (MNWS) (r=-0.31, p=0.00) and social support (ESSI) (r=0.25, p=0.01) were statistically significantly correlated with confidence to resist the urge to smoke. The result of this study will be useful in developing effective and culturally unique smoking cessation intervention programs, for the Japanese population with CVD.