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Recovery from Coma Post-Cardiac Arrest Is Dependent on the Orexin Pathway

  • Author(s): Kang, Y-J
  • Tian, G
  • Bazrafkan, A
  • Farahabadi, MH
  • Azadian, M
  • Abbasi, H
  • Shamaoun, BE
  • Steward, O
  • Akbari, Y
  • et al.
Abstract

Cardiac arrest (CA) affects >550,000 people annually in the United States whereas 80-90% of survivors suffer from a comatose state. Arousal from coma is critical for recovery, but mechanisms of arousal are undefined. Orexin-A, a hypothalamic excitatory neuropeptide, has been linked to arousal deficits in various brain injuries. We investigated the orexinergic system's role in recovery from CA-related neurological impairments, including arousal deficits. Using an asphyxial CA and resuscitation model in rats, we examine neurological recovery post-resuscitation in conjunction with changes in orexin-A levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and orexin-expressing neurons. We also conduct pharmacological inhibition of orexin post-resuscitation. We show that recovery from neurological deficits begins between 4 and 24 h post-resuscitation, with additional recovery by 72 h post-resuscitation. Orexin-A levels in the CSF are lowest during periods of poorest arousal post-resuscitation (4 h) and recover to control levels by 24 h. Immunostaining revealed that the number of orexin-A immunoreactive neurons declined at 4 h post-resuscitation, but increased to near normal levels by 24 h. There were no significant changes in the number of neurons expressing melanin-concentrating hormone, another neuropeptide localized in similar hypothalamus regions. Last, administration of the dual orexin receptor antagonist, suvorexant, during the initial 24 h post-resuscitation, led to sustained neurological deficits. The orexin pathway is critical during early phases of neurological recovery post-CA. Blocking this early action leads to persistent neurological deficits. This is of considerable clinical interest given that suvorexant recently received U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval for insomnia treatment.

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