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Open Access Publications from the University of California

Rapid hyperpolarization and purification of the metabolite fumarate in aqueous solution.

  • Author(s): Knecht, Stephan
  • Blanchard, John W
  • Barskiy, Danila
  • Cavallari, Eleonora
  • Dagys, Laurynas
  • Van Dyke, Erik
  • Tsukanov, Maksim
  • Bliemel, Bea
  • Münnemann, Kerstin
  • Aime, Silvio
  • Reineri, Francesca
  • Levitt, Malcolm H
  • Buntkowsky, Gerd
  • Pines, Alexander
  • Blümler, Peter
  • Budker, Dmitry
  • Eills, James
  • et al.

Hyperpolarized fumarate is a promising biosensor for carbon-13 magnetic resonance metabolic imaging. Such molecular imaging applications require nuclear hyperpolarization to attain sufficient signal strength. Dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization is the current state-of-the-art methodology for hyperpolarizing fumarate, but this is expensive and relatively slow. Alternatively, this important biomolecule can be hyperpolarized in a cheap and convenient manner using parahydrogen-induced polarization. However, this process requires a chemical reaction, and the resulting solutions are contaminated with the catalyst, unreacted reagents, and reaction side-product molecules, and are hence unsuitable for use in vivo. In this work we show that the hyperpolarized fumarate can be purified from these contaminants by acid precipitation as a pure solid, and later redissolved to a desired concentration in a clean aqueous solvent. Significant advances in the reaction conditions and reactor equipment allow for formation of hyperpolarized fumarate at 13C polarization levels of 30-45%.

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