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Open Access Publications from the University of California

Dietary assessment of individuals with chronic kidney disease.

  • Author(s): Bross, Rachelle
  • Noori, Nazanin
  • Kovesdy, Csaba P
  • Murali, Sameer B
  • Benner, Debbie
  • Block, Gladys
  • Kopple, Joel D
  • Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar
  • et al.

Examining the quality and quantity of food intake by appropriate methods is critical in the management of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The four commonly used dietary assessment methods in CKD patients include short-term dietary recalls, several days of food records with or without dietary interviews, urea kinetic based estimates such as protein nitrogen appearance calculation, and food histories including food screeners and food frequency questionnaires (FFQ). There are a number of strengths and limitations of these dietary assessment methods. Accordingly, none of the four methods is suitable in and of itself to give sufficiently accurate dietary information for all purposes. Food frequency questionnaires, which is the preferred method for epidemiological studies, should be used for dietary comparisons of patients within a given population rather than individual assessment. Food histories including FFQ and dietary recalls may underestimate important nutrients, especially in CKD patients. Given the large and increasing number of dialysis patients and work responsibilities of renal dietitians, routine analysis of dietary records and recalls is becoming less feasible. Ongoing and future studies will ascertain additional strengths and limitations of dietary assessment methods in CKD populations including the assessment of food intake during an actual hemodialysis treatment.

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