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Ultra-low loss visible light waveguides for integrated atomic, molecular, and quantum photonics.

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Atomic, molecular and optical (AMO) visible light systems are the heart of precision applications including quantum, atomic clocks and precision metrology. As these systems scale in terms of number of lasers, wavelengths, and optical components, their reliability, space occupied, and power consumption will push the limits of using traditional laboratory-scale lasers and optics. Visible light photonic integration is critical to advancing AMO based sciences and applications, yet key performance aspects remain to be addressed, most notably waveguide losses and laser phase noise and stability. Additionally, a visible light integrated solution needs to be wafer-scale CMOS compatible and capable of supporting a wide array of photonic components. While the regime of ultra-low loss has been achieved at telecommunication wavelengths, progress at visible wavelengths has been limited. Here, we report the lowest waveguide losses and highest resonator Qs to date in the visible range, to the best of our knowledge. We report waveguide losses at wavelengths associated with strontium transitions in the 461 nm to 802 nm wavelength range, of 0.01 dB/cm to 0.09 dB/cm and associated intrinsic resonator Q of 60 Million to 9.5 Million, a decrease in loss by factors of 6x to 2x and increase in Q by factors of 10x to 1.5x over this visible wavelength range. Additionally, we measure an absorption limited loss and Q of 0.17 dB/m and 340 million at 674 nm. This level of performance is achieved in a wafer-scale foundry compatible Si3N4 platform with a 20 nm thick core and TEOS-PECVD deposited upper cladding oxide, and enables waveguides for different wavelengths to be fabricated on the same wafer with mask-only changes per wavelength. These results represent a significant step forward in waveguide platforms that operate in the visible, opening up a wide range of integrated applications that utilize atoms, ions and molecules including sensing, navigation, metrology and clocks.

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