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Wild type human TDP-43 potentiates ALS-linked mutant TDP-43 driven progressive motor and cortical neuron degeneration with pathological features of ALS.

  • Author(s): Mitchell, Jacqueline C
  • Constable, Remy
  • So, Eva
  • Vance, Caroline
  • Scotter, Emma
  • Glover, Leanne
  • Hortobagyi, Tibor
  • Arnold, Eveline S
  • Ling, Shuo-Chien
  • McAlonis, Melissa
  • Da Cruz, Sandrine
  • Polymenidou, Magda
  • Tessarolo, Lino
  • Cleveland, Don W
  • Shaw, Christopher E
  • et al.
Abstract

Introduction

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a relentlessly progressive neurodegenerative disorder, and cytoplasmic inclusions containing transactive response (TAR) DNA binding protein (TDP-43) are present in ~90 % of cases. Here we report detailed pathology in human TDP-43 transgenic mice that recapitulate key features of TDP-43-linked ALS.

Results

Expression of human wild-type TDP-43 (TDP-43(WT)) caused no clinical or pathological phenotype, while expression of Q331K mutant (TDP-43(Q331K)) resulted in a non-lethal age-dependent motor phenotype, accompanied by cytoplasmic TDP-43 aggregation, mild neuronal loss, with astroglial and microglial activation in the motor cortex and spinal cord at 24 months. However, co-expression of WT and Q331K mutant (TDP-43(WTxQ331K)) resulted in an extremely aggressive motor phenotype with tremor from 3 weeks and progressive hind-limb paralysis necessitating euthanasia by 8-10 weeks of age. Neuronal loss and reactive gliosis was observed in the spinal cord and layer V region of the cortex, with TDP-43, ubiquitin and p62 cytoplasmic inclusions and an increase in insoluble TDP-43. Nuclear clearance of TDP-43 was not observed in TDP-43(Q331K) mice but was seen in 65 % of aggregate containing spinal cord motor neurons in TDP-43(WTxQ331K) mice.

Conclusions

We hypothesise that cytoplasmic TDP-43(Q331K) aggregates facilitate the recruitment of WT protein in compound animals, which dramatically accelerates neurodegeneration and disease progression. The exploration of disease mechanisms in slow and rapid disease models of TDP-43 proteinopathy will help elucidate novel drug targets and provide a more informative platform for preclinical trials.

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