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Open Access Publications from the University of California

Real-space refinement in PHENIX for cryo-EM and crystallography

  • Author(s): Afonine, PV
  • Poon, BK
  • Read, RJ
  • Sobolev, OV
  • Terwilliger, TC
  • Urzhumtsev, A
  • Adams, PD
  • et al.

© 2018, Wiley-Blackwell. All rights reserved. This article describes the implementation of real-space refinement in the phenix.real_space:refine program from the PHENIX suite. The use of a simplified refinement target function enables very fast calculation, which in turn makes it possible to identify optimal data-restraint weights as part of routine refinements with little runtime cost. Refinement of atomic models against lowresolution data benefits from the inclusion of as much additional information as is available. In addition to standard restraints on covalent geometry, phenix.real_space:refine makes use of extra information such as secondarystructure and rotamer-specific restraints, as well as restraints or constraints on internal molecular symmetry. The re-refinement of 385 cryo-EM-derived models available in the Protein Data Bank at resolutions of 6 Å or better shows significant improvement of the models and of the fit of these models to the target maps

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