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Open Access Publications from the University of California

Correlation between micrometer-scale ripple alignment and atomic-scale crystallographic orientation of monolayer graphene.

  • Author(s): Choi, Jin Sik
  • Chang, Young Jun
  • Woo, Sungjong
  • Son, Young-Woo
  • Park, Yeonggu
  • Lee, Mi Jung
  • Byun, Ik-Su
  • Kim, Jin-Soo
  • Choi, Choon-Gi
  • Bostwick, Aaron
  • Rotenberg, Eli
  • Park, Bae Ho
  • et al.

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Deformation normal to the surface is intrinsic in two-dimensional materials due to phononic thermal fluctuations at finite temperatures. Graphene's negative thermal expansion coefficient is generally explained by such an intrinsic property. Recently, friction measurements on graphene exfoliated on a silicon oxide surface revealed an anomalous anisotropy whose origin was believed to be the formation of ripple domains. Here, we uncover the atomistic origin of the observed friction domains using a cantilever torsion microscopy in conjunction with angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. We experimentally demonstrate that ripples on graphene are formed along the zigzag direction of the hexagonal lattice. The formation of zigzag directional ripple is consistent with our theoretical model that takes account of the atomic-scale bending stiffness of carbon-carbon bonds and the interaction of graphene with the substrate. The correlation between micrometer-scale ripple alignment and atomic-scale arrangement of exfoliated monolayer graphene is first discovered and suggests a practical tool for measuring lattice orientation of graphene.

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