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Adipose tissue from subjects with type 2 diabetes exhibits impaired capillary formation in response to GROα: involvement of MMPs-2 and -9


Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is associated with impaired vascularization of adipose tissue (AT) . IL8, GROα and IL15 are pro-angiogenic myokines, secreted at elevated levels by T2D myotubes. We explored the direct impact of these myokines on AT vascularization. AT explants from subjects with T2D and without diabetes (non-diabetic, ND) were treated with rIL8, rGROα and rIL15 in concentrations equal to those in conditioned media (CM) from T2D and ND myotubes, and sprout formation evaluated. Endothelial cells (EC) were isolated from T2D and ND-AT, treated with rGROα and tube formation evaluated. Finally, we investigated the involvement of MMP-2 and -9 in vascularization. ND and T2D concentrations of IL8 or IL15   caused similar stimulation of sprout formation in ND- and T2D-AT. GROα exerted a similar effect in ND-AT. When T2D-AT explants were exposed to GROα, sprout formation in response to T2D concentrations was reduced compared to ND. Exposure of EC from T2D-AT to GROα at T2D concentrations resulted in reduced tube formation. Reduced responses to GROα in T2D-AT and EC were also seen for secretion of MMP-2 and -9. The data indicate that skeletal muscle can potentially regulate AT vascularization, with T2D-AT having impairments in sensitivity to GROα, while responding normally to IL8 and IL15.

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