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Regulation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase by hypoxia inducible factor 1 in the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei during hypoxia and reoxygenation


Hypoxia is a frequent source of stress in the estuarine habitat of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. During hypoxia, L. vannamei gill cells rely more heavily on anaerobic glycolysis to obtain ATP. This is mediated by transcriptional up-regulation of glycolytic enzymes including glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). The hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is an important transcriptional activator of several glycolytic enzymes during hypoxia in diverse animals, including crustaceans. In this work, we cloned and sequenced a fragment corresponding to the 5' flank of the GAPDH gene and identified a putative HIF-1 binding site, as well as sites for other transcription factors involved in the hypoxia signaling pathway. To investigate the role of HIF-1 in GAPDH regulation, we simultaneously injected double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into shrimp to silence HIF-1α and HIF-1β under normoxia, hypoxia, and hypoxia followed by reoxygenation, and then measured gill HIF-1α, HIF-1β expression, GAPDH expression and activity, and glucose and lactate concentrations at 0, 3, 24 and 48 h. During normoxia, HIF-1 silencing induced up-regulation of GAPDH transcripts and activity, suggesting that expression is down-regulated via HIF-1 under these conditions. In contrast, HIF-1 silencing during hypoxia abolished the increases in GAPDH expression and activity, glucose and lactate concentrations. Finally, HIF-1 silencing during hypoxia-reoxygenation prevented the increase in GAPDH expression, however, those changes were not reflected in GAPDH activity and lactate accumulation. Altogether, these results indicate that GAPDH and glycolysis are transcriptionally regulated by HIF-1 in gills of white shrimp.

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