A novel Filamentous Flower mutant suppresses brevipedicellus developmental defects and modulates glucosinolate and auxin levels.
Published Web Locationhttps://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0177045
BREVIPEDICELLUS (BP) encodes a class-I KNOTTED1-like homeobox (KNOX) transcription factor that plays a critical role in conditioning a replication competent state in the apical meristem, and it also governs growth and cellular differentiation in internodes and pedicels. To search for factors that modify BP signaling, we conducted a suppressor screen on bp er (erecta) plants and identified a mutant that ameliorates many of the pleiotropic defects of the parent line. Map based cloning and complementation studies revealed that the defect lies in the FILAMENTOUS FLOWER (FIL) gene, a member of the YABBY family of transcriptional regulators that contribute to meristem organization and function, phyllotaxy, leaf and floral organ growth and polarity, and are also known to repress KNOX gene expression. Genetic and cytological analyses of the fil-10 suppressor line indicate that the role of FIL in promoting growth is independent of its previously characterized influences on meristem identity and lateral organ polarity, and likely occurs non-cell-autonomously from superior floral organs. Transcription profiling of inflorescences revealed that FIL downregulates numerous transcription factors which in turn may subordinately regulate inflorescence architecture. In addition, FIL, directly or indirectly, activates over a dozen genes involved in glucosinolate production in part by activating MYB28, a known activator of many aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis genes. In the bp er fil-10 suppressor mutant background, enhanced expression of CYP71A13, AMIDASE1 (AMI) and NITRILASE genes suggest that auxin levels can be modulated by shunting glucosinolate metabolites into the IAA biosynthetic pathway, and increased IAA levels in the bp er fil-10 suppressor accompany enhanced internode and pedicel elongation. We propose that FIL acts to oppose KNOX1 gene function through a complex regulatory network that involves changes in secondary metabolites and auxin.