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Effects of aquatic nitrogen pollution on particle-attached ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in urban freshwater mesocosms.


Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) attached to aquatic particles are important participants in ammonia oxidation within hypereutrophic urban river systems. To explore the effects of aquatic nitrogen pollution on particle-attached AOB in urban river, we utilized laboratory mesocosms to investigate the responses of abundances and community structure of particle-attached AOB to ammonium (NH4+) and glycine (C2H5NO2) amendments. The abundance and community structure of particle-attached AOB were determined with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis and high-throughput sequencing based on the AOB amoA gene, respectively. Most of the bacterial amoA sequences from different treatments were affiliated with uncultured Nitrosomonadaceae bacterium, uncultured Nitrosomonadales bacterium, and uncultured Nitrosomonas sp., which are closely associated with organic pollution. The species richness and diversity of particle-attached AOB communities increased with increasing NH4+ and glycine concentrations. Treatment effects contributed significantly to the variance in particle-attached AOB communities. Although, glycine was completely transformed to ammonium within a few days and ammonium amendments would change the community structure of particle-attached AOB, the effect of glycine on the particle-attached AOB community was regulated by both the resulting ammonium concentration, as well as organic matter availability to the heterotrophic bacteria. Results suggested that high anthropogenic nitrogen loadings appeared to promote higher particle-attached AOB richness and diversity in the hypereutrophic urban river, but the effect of organic nitrogen on the particle-attached AOB community was different from the effect of inorganic nitrogen. This study informs ammonia oxidization mechanisms in the hypereutrophic urban rivers, which contributes to remediation/restoration strategies.

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