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Investigation of S-Nitrosoglutathione in stroke: A systematic review and meta-analysis of literature in pre-clinical and clinical research.



S-Nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) is a nitric oxide donor that has been investigated for neuroprotective and neuro-recovery effect. We aimed to conduct a systematic review on the published literatures using GSNO in both pre-clinical and clinical stroke studies.


We searched PubMed up to June 30, 2019, using the following keywords: S-Nitrosoglutathione, GSNO, stroke, cerebrovascular, carotid arteries, middle cerebral artery, and middle cerebral artery occlusion. Only studies published in the English language providing efficacy results of GSNO on ischemic stroke were included. Stroke Therapy Academic Industry Roundtable (STAIR) score was used to assess the quality of pre-clinical studies and PEDro score for clinical trials. A meta-analysis was conducted to compare the effect size.


Of 39 articles identified, 10 (6 for pre-clinical and 4 for clinical studies) met the eligibility criteria and were included. The median STAIR score across the pre-clinical studies was 5.5 (range: 4-7), and the median PEDro score for the 4 clinical trials was 10 (ranged: 6 to 10). Among the 6 pre-clinical studies, GSNO reduced infarct size in 6 studies and improved neurological behavior scales in 5 studies compared to placebo. Inverse-variance weighted linear meta-analysis of standardized mean difference (Hedge's g) on 4 human studies revealed a big effect size (Hedge's g = -0.82, 95% CI: [-1.26, -0.38], P = .0003) favoring the GSNO group in term of reducing embolic signals. I2 value was 0 across the included clinical studies in the meta-analysis.


Pre-clinical studies showed positive benefit of GSNO in animal stroke models. The meta-analysis of clinical studies demonstrated that GSNO is effective in reducing embolic signals in patients with symptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis undergoing carotid endarterectomy or stenting. Further investigation of this molecule is warranted.

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