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How important is dietary management in chronic kidney disease progression? A role for low protein diets.

Abstract

High dietary protein intake may lead to increased intraglomerular pressure and glomerular hyperfiltration, which in the long-term can lead to de novo or aggravating preexisting chronic kidney disease (CKD). Hence, a low protein diet (LPD, 0.6 to 0.8 g/kg/day) is recommended for the management of CKD. There are evidences that dietary protein restriction mitigate progression of CKD and retard the initiation of dialysis or facilitate incremental dialysis. LPD is also helpful to control metabolic derangements in CKD such as metabolic acidosis and hyperphosphatemia. Recently, a growing body of evidence has emerged on the benefits of plant-dominant low-protein diet (PLADO), which composed of > 50% plant-based sources. PLADO is considered to be helpful for relieving uremic burden and metabolic complications in CKD compared to animal protein dominant consumption. It may also lead to favorable alterations in the gut microbiome, which can modulate uremic toxin generation along with reducing cardiovascular risk. Alleviation of constipation in PLADO may minimize the risk of hyperkalemia. A balanced and individualized dietary approach for good adherence to LPD utilizing various plant-based sources as patients' preference should be elaborated for the optimal care in CKD. Periodic nutritional assessment under supervision of trained dietitians should be warranted to avoid protein-energy wasting.

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