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ELM mitigation by supersonic molecular beam injection: KSTAR and HL-2A experiments and theory

  • Author(s): Xiao, WW
  • Diamond, PH
  • Kim, WC
  • Yao, LH
  • Yoon, SW
  • Ding, XT
  • Hahn, SH
  • Kim, J
  • Xu, M
  • Chen, CY
  • Feng, BB
  • Cheng, J
  • Zhong, WL
  • Shi, ZB
  • Jiang, M
  • Han, XY
  • Nam, YU
  • Ko, WH
  • Lee, SG
  • Bak, JG
  • Ahn, JW
  • Kim, HK
  • Kim, HT
  • Kim, KP
  • Zou, XL
  • Song, SD
  • Song, JI
  • Yu, YW
  • Rhee, T
  • Kwon, JM
  • Huang, XL
  • Yu, DL
  • Lee, KD
  • Park, SI
  • Jung, M
  • Zoletnik, S
  • Lampert, M
  • Tynan, GR
  • Bae, YS
  • Kwak, JG
  • Yan, LW
  • Duan, XR
  • Oh, YK
  • Dong, JQ
  • et al.

We report recent experimental results from HL-2A and KSTAR on ELM mitigation by supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI). Cold particle deposition within the pedestal by SMBI is verified in both machines. The signatures of ELM mitigation by SMBI are an ELM frequency increase and ELM amplitude decrease. These persist for an SMBI influence time τI. Here, τI is the time for the SMBI influenced pedestal profile to refill. An increase in fELMSMBI/fELM0 and a decrease in the energy loss per ELM ΔWELM were achieved in both machines. Physical insight was gleaned from studies of density and vΦ (toroidal rotation velocity) evolution, particle flux and turbulence spectra, divertor heat load. The characteristic gradients of the pedestal density soften and a change in vΦ was observed during a τI time. The spectra of the edge particle flux Γ ∼ 〈ṽrñe〉 and density fluctuation with and without SMBI were measured in HL-2A and in KSTAR, respectively. A clear phenomenon observed is the decrease in divertor heat load during the τI time in HL-2A. Similar results are the profiles of saturation current density Jsat with and without SMBI in KSTAR. We note that τI/τp (particle confinement time) is close to ∼1, although there is a large difference in individual τI between the two machines. This suggests that τI is strongly related to particle-transport events. Experiments and analysis of a simple phenomenological model support the important conclusion that ELM mitigation by SMBI results from an increase in higher frequency fluctuations and transport events in the pedestal. © 2014 IAEA, Vienna.

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