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Prevalence and outcomes of cryptococcal antigenemia in HIV-seropositive patients hospitalized for suspected tuberculosis in uganda

  • Author(s): Andama, AO
  • Den Boon, S
  • Meya, D
  • Cattamanchi, A
  • Worodria, W
  • Davis, JL
  • Walter, ND
  • Yoo, SD
  • Kalema, N
  • Haller, B
  • Huang, L
  • et al.
Abstract

Background: Cryptococcal infection occurs in HIV-seropositive patients and is associated with high mortality. However, limited information is available on the prevalence and outcomes of cryptococcal antigenemia among hospitalized HIV-seropositive patients in sub-Saharan Africa. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of and risk factors for cryptococcal antigenemia among HIV-seropositive patients presenting to Mulago Hospital (Kampala, Uganda) with unexplained cough $2 weeks and suspected tuberculosis (TB) and also to determine if antigenemia is associated with an increased mortality. Methods: Between September 2009 and September 2010, we enrolled consecutive HIV-seropositive adults hospitalized at Mulago Hospital with cough $2 weeks and suspected TB. Banked serum was tested for cryptococcal antigen. We compared demographic and clinical characteristics, and 2-month mortality in patients with and without cryptococcal antigenemia. Results: Of 563 HIV-seropositive patients, 32 (5.7%) were cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) positive. None had Cryptococcus neoformans detected on fungal culture of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (n = 116). CrAg-positive patients had a lower median CD4 count compared with CrAg-negative patients (25 vs. 55 cells/mL, P = 0.02), and a substantial proportion of CrAg-positive patients also had concurrent TB (31%). A positive CrAg test was not associated with increased mortality during the 2-month follow-up period (hazard ratio: 0.99, 95% confidence interval: 0.63 to 1.54, P = 0.95) after adjusting for CD4 count and antiretroviral therapy use at enrollment and/or follow-up. Conclusions: Occult cryptococcal antigenemia occurs commonly among hospitalized HIV-seropositive patients with suspected TB. CrAg testing should be considered in hospitalized HIV-seropositive patients with CD4 count ,50 cells/mL, coupled with longer follow-up to evaluate the diagnostic value of CrAg and therapeutic interventions in patients with asymptomatic cryptococcal antigenemia. Copyright © 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

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