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Open Access Publications from the University of California

The Ralph and Goldy Lewis Center for Regional Policy Studies was established to promote the study, understanding and solution of regional policy issues, with special reference to Southern California. Areas of study include problems of the environment, urban design, housing, community and neighborhood dynamics, transportation and local economic development. The Center was founded in 1988 with a $5 million endowment from Ralph and Goldy Lewis. In addition to income from the Lewis Endowment, the Center is supported by private and corporate foundation gifts and grants, individual donors, and research grants from a variety of governmental agencies. The Center sponsors a lecture/seminar series, as well as workshops and conferences focusing on Southern California, in an effort to build bridges to the local community.

Some working papers are not available electronically but a link is provided to the Lewis Center website for ordering instructions. (http://lewis.sppsr.ucla.edu/WorkingPapers.html)

Cover page of Neighborhood Effects on HIV Testing: A Multi-Level Analysis

Neighborhood Effects on HIV Testing: A Multi-Level Analysis

(2003)

Only one study has explored geographic variations in HIV-testing and one possible regional characteristic correlated with that variation, leaving many potential regional characteristics unexamined. This paper explores geographic disparities in HIV-testing and eleven neighborhood characteristics as potential correlates of those disparities, controlling for individuals’ characteristics.

Cover page of The 2000 Census Undercount in Los Angeles County

The 2000 Census Undercount in Los Angeles County

(2002)

This working paper reports the findings from an analysis of the estimated undercount of the population in the 2000 Census for Los Angeles County. The Bureau of the Census improved its performance for 2000 relative to 1990, but the enumeration was not complete. The are three key findings: 1) Los Angeles County has a disproportionate number of the undercounted population; 2) the undercounted population is unevenly distributed within Los Angeles County across neighborhoods, varying across neighborhoods from -0.3% to 5.9%; and 3) neighborhoods with the highest under-count rates tend to be poor and predominantly minority, and have a relatively large number of children. Because of the geographic differences, disadvantaged neighborhoods and populations are at risk of being under-represented, under-served, and under-funded.

Cover page of The Integrating (and Segregating) Effect of Charter, Magnet, and Traditional Elementary Schools: The Case of Five California Metropolitan Areas

The Integrating (and Segregating) Effect of Charter, Magnet, and Traditional Elementary Schools: The Case of Five California Metropolitan Areas

(2002)

For most children the racial composition of their neighborhood determines the racial composition of their school. Segregated housing patterns translate into a highly segregated educational system, which can then result in disparities in educational opportunities and an institutionalized mechanism for the reproduction of racial inequality. To better understand the extent to which the racial composition of charter and magnet schools deviates from their neighborhood composition, we analyze public elementary schools in five California metropolitan. Our findings suggest that individual schools can expose children to a more racially integrated or segregated educational environment than their local neighborhood. Magnet schools, on average, provide students with a more integrated environment than the local neighborhood, while charter schools provide a more segregated environment.

Cover page of Job Access and Work Among Autoless Adults in Welfare in Los Angeles

Job Access and Work Among Autoless Adults in Welfare in Los Angeles

(2002)

Lack of auto ownership is frequently cited as a major barrier to welfare recipients’ transition to work. The importance of accessible job opportunities in employment outcomes has not, however, been empirically analyzed for welfare recipients who do not own automobiles. This study analyzes the effect of job accessibility on employment outcomes for autoless adults on welfare in Los Angeles. Two important components of this analysis are the computation of job-access measures that take into account travel modes and the incorporation of the job-access measures into multinomial logit models. The job-access measures show a considerable disparity in the number of spatially accessible job opportunities for auto users and transit users. The multinomial logit analysis indicates that for autoless welfare recipients, improving transit-based job accessibility significantly enhances the employment probability, although it does not make a significant difference in the probability of earning $4,500 or more per year. The analysis further reveals that the job-access effect is greater for autoless welfare recipients than for auto-owning recipients. Certain policy implications suggested by the empirical findings are discussed.

Cover page of Economic Needs of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders in Distressed Areas: Establishing Baseline Information

Economic Needs of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders in Distressed Areas: Establishing Baseline Information

(2002)

This report provides baseline statistics needed for policy-oriented research on disadvantaged Asian-Pacific Americans (APAs) neighborhoods. We profile 17 poor APA neighborhoods across the United States and provide insights from a survey of community-based organizations (CBOs). The neighborhood profiles reveal diverse neighborhood characteristics, including variations in economic base, size, and ethnic composition. In spite of substantial differences, some common features are seen. Most neighborhoods are linguistically isolated immigrant communities with low educational attainment and low earnings. This report is the final product from a grant made by the Economic Development Administration to the National Coalition on Asian Pacific Americans Community Development (NCAPACD), the Little Tokyo Service Center and UCLA's Asian American Studies Center who contracted the Lewis Center out to conduct the survey.

Cover page of Technical Supplement to Economic Needs of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders in Distressed Areas: Establishing Baseline Information

Technical Supplement to Economic Needs of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders in Distressed Areas: Establishing Baseline Information

(2002)

This technical supplement provides the tables and maps upon which the analysis included in the report for the Economic Development Administration of the U.S. Department of Commerce, "Economic Needs of Asian Americans and Pacific Islander in Distressed Areas” was based. contains detailed neighborhood profiles and maps of low-income APA areas in the following MSAs: Chicago, Long Beach (Little Phnom Pen), Los Angeles (Koreatown), Lowell, New Orleans, New York City (Chinatown), New York City (Jackson Heights), Orange County (Little Saigon), Sacramento, Saint Paul, San Francisco (Chinatown), Seattle, Stockton (Cambodian), Stockton (Filipino), Hawaii Study Area, Oahu, Hawaii Study Area, Molokai and San Francisco (Samoan).

Cover page of Traditional Neighborhoods and Auto Ownership

Traditional Neighborhoods and Auto Ownership

(2001)

Many cities have traditional neighborhoods, or established, inner-city districts comprised of diverse housing, mixed-land uses, pedestrian connectivity and convenient transit access. This study quantifies the likely effects of land use patterns on auto ownership for such neighborhoods. Using Portland, Oregon, we test a model that explains auto ownership based on household, neighborhood, and urban design characteristics. The index of mixed-land use is statistically significant, ceteris paribus. We find compelling evidence of the impact of mixed-land use on auto ownership: as land use mix changes from diverse to homogeneous, the probability of owning an auto decreases by 31 percentage points. The findings imply that traditional neighborhoods are more conducive to alternatives to private vehicle use, such as walking and public transit, and to higher motor vehicle costs.

Cover page of Los Angeles County CalWORKs Transportation Needs Assessment

Los Angeles County CalWORKs Transportation Needs Assessment

(2001)

This report provides analysis of the transportation barriers facing welfare-to-work participants in Los Angeles County compiled by the UCLA Ralph & Goldy Lewis Center for Regional Policy Studies for the CalWORKs Transportation Needs Assessment (CTNA). The results of this analysis comprise a critical component of the report by the Los Angeles County Department of Social Services to the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors on the nature and depth of the transportation needs of the welfare-to-work population in Los Angeles County (LADPSS, 2000). These results provide the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors and county transportation planners with: Baseline information on the transportation behavior and needs of welfare-to-work participants in Los Angeles County. Description of the transportation barriers to the transition from welfare to work. A foundation upon which a framework of effective transportation policies for welfare recipients can be developed

Cover page of The Effects of Free Parking on Commuter Mode Choice: Evidence from Travel Diary Data

The Effects of Free Parking on Commuter Mode Choice: Evidence from Travel Diary Data

(2001)

This study assesses the effect of free parking on mode choice and parking demand. A multinomial logit model is developed to evaluate the probabilities that commuters who do and who do not receive free parking at work will choose to drive alone, ride in a carpool, or use transit for the trip to work in Portland’s (Oregon) CBD. The mode choice model predicts that with free parking, 62 percent of commuters will drive alone, 16 percent will commute in carpools and 22 percent will ride transit; with a daily parking charge of $6, 46 percent will drive alone, 4 percent will ride in carpools and 50 percent will ride transit. The mode choice model predicts that a daily parking charge of $6 in the Portland CBD would result in 21 fewer cars driven for every 100 commuters. This translates to a daily reduction of 147 VMT per 100 commuters and an annual reduction of 39,000 VMT per 100 commuters. These findings are consistent with previous studies of the effect of parking cost on mode choice. The policy variables that play a part in mode choice decisions for commuters are the parking cost and the travel time by transit, and the results suggest that raising the cost of parking at work sites and decreasing the transit travel time (by improving service and decreasing headways) will reduce the drive alone mode share. The results provide little support for the contention that land use is a significant factor in mode choice decisions.

Cover page of Eroding Neighborhood Integration: The Impact of California's Expiring Section 8 Subsidy Contracts

Eroding Neighborhood Integration: The Impact of California's Expiring Section 8 Subsidy Contracts

(2000)

In California over 120,000 affordable housing units have expiring Section 8 rent subsidy contracts and, consequently, are at risk of conversion to market rate housing. Upon contract expirations, if property owners prepay their mortgages, they can choose to continue in or withdraw from the affordable housing program. Considering contracts that expired from May 31, 1997 to January 1, 1999 in California, this report empirically examines the characteristics of renewal (continuation) versus opt-out (discontinuation) projects and explores where vouchered-out families from two properties in Sacramento County found replacement housing. The evidence indicates that opt-out projects are more likely in racially and economically integrated neighborhoods, while renewing projects are in segregated neighborhoods. The evidence also suggests that owners have a stronger tendency to renew when tenants are senior. This points to a particular problem caused by expiring contracts: young families living in integrated neighborhoods, who particularly benefit from schools and job opportunities, are most likely to have their homes converted to market rate housing by voluntary owner opt-outs. The small sample of Sacramento movers suggests that households may move to less racially and economically integrated neighborhoods with their vouchers, and larger families fare worse than do moving families overall. However, the number of units lost to voluntary owner opt-outs will likely be small. The evidence suggests that without targeted government intervention, many families dislocated by opt-outs are likely to move to economically and racially segregated neighborhoods.