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Open Access Publications from the University of California

Department of Sociology

UC Davis

Open Access Policy Deposits

This series is automatically populated with publications deposited by UC Davis Department of Sociology researchers in accordance with the University of California’s open access policies. For more information see Open Access Policy Deposits and the UC Publication Management System.

Cumulative Risk of Immigration Prison Conditions on Health Outcomes Among Detained Immigrants in California.

(2021)

The USA maintains the world's largest immigration detention system. This study examines the mechanisms by which detention serves as a catalyst for worsening health. Using data from detained immigrants in California (n = 493) from 2013 to 2014, we assessed the prevalence of exposure to conditions of confinement hypothesized to negatively influence health; the extent to which conditions of confinement are associated with psychological stress, diagnosed mental health conditions, and/or declines in general health; and the cumulative impact of confinement conditions on these outcomes. We found that each condition increased the likelihood of one or more negative health conditions, but there was also a cumulative effect: for each additional confinement condition, the odds of worsening general health rose by 39% and reporting good health decreased by 24%. Confinement conditions are associated with poor physical and mental health outcomes among immigrants detained in immigration prisons. Policies that seek to improve specific conditions in detention centers may remove some risks of harm, but alternatives to detention are likely to be most effective.

Cover page of Telecommunication ties and gender ideologies in the age of globalization: International telephone networks and gender attitudes in 47 countries

Telecommunication ties and gender ideologies in the age of globalization: International telephone networks and gender attitudes in 47 countries

(2020)

Scholars have posed different hypotheses on the impact of global telecommunications on value orientations. We analyze and characterize the global telecommunication network and test a series of hypotheses on the relationship between gender values and three types of telephone connections: ties with the global society, ties with Western nations, and ties within groups of nations sharing similar cultural, religious, political, or geographical traits. We use multilevel models and data on two levels, between-country telecommunications network data from TeleGeography, and individual-level data (N = 70,225) on people living in 47 countries from the World Value Survey, waves III and IV. Countries with high degrees of communication insulation, measured as a high percentage of within-group ties of all global telephone links, hold less egalitarian attitudes toward gender equality. This negative effect of group insulation depresses the egalitarian effects of younger birth cohort, college education, and higher income. Embeddedness in a localized information diffusion network and isolated from global communication is associated with less egalitarian attitude toward gender equality. But neither global ties nor ties with Western countries are linked with gender attitudes.

Cover page of Creating the intellectual: Chinese communism and the rise of a classification

Creating the intellectual: Chinese communism and the rise of a classification

(2019)

Creating the Intellectual redefines how we understand relations between intellectuals and the Chinese socialist revolution of the last century. Under the Chinese Communist Party, “the intellectual” was first and foremost a widening classification of individuals based on Marxist thought. The party turned revolutionaries and otherwise ordinary people into subjects identified as usable but untrustworthy intellectuals, an identification that profoundly affected patterns of domination, interaction, and rupture within the revolutionary enterprise. Drawing on a wide range of data, Eddy U takes the reader on a journey that examines political discourses, revolutionary strategies, rural activities, urban registrations, workplace arrangements, organized protests, and theater productions. He lays out in colorful detail the formation of new identities, forms of organization, and associations in Chinese society. The outcome is a compelling picture of the mutual constitution of the intellectual and the Chinese socialist revolution, the legacy of which still affects ways of seeing, thinking, acting, and feeling in what is now a globalized China. 

Cover page of Great expectations: The EU's social role as a great power manager

Great expectations: The EU's social role as a great power manager

(2019)

Through the case of EU foreign and security policy we reconsider the concept of great power. According to common wisdom, the EU cannot be a great power, whatever the pronouncements of its top officials may be. We argue that ‘great power’ has been miscast in IR theory as a status rather than as a social role, and, consequently, that the EU can indeed be viewed as playing the great power role. Such a conceptual shift moves analytical attention away from questions of what the EU is ‘big’, ‘small’, ‘great’, and so on to what it is expected to do in international politics. We focus on the expectation that great powers engage in the management of the international system, assessing the EU as a great power manager in two senses: First, in the classical sense of ‘great power management’ of Hedley Bull which centers on great powers’ creation of regional spheres of influence and the maintenance of the general balance of power and second, in light of recent corrections to Bull’s approach by Alexander Astrov and others, who suggest great power management has changed toward a logic of governmentality, i.e. ‘conducting the conduct’ of lesser states.

Trends in U.S. Gender Attitudes, 1977 to 2018: Gender and Educational Disparities

(2019)

These figures display gender- and education-related gaps in U.S. gender attitudes from 1977 to 2018. The authors use data from the General Social Survey ( N = 57,224) to estimate the historical trajectory of U.S. attitudes about women in politics, familial roles, and working motherhood. Of all attitudes analyzed, Americans hold the most liberal attitudes toward women in politics, with no gender gap and little educational difference on this issue. Attitudes toward familial roles have the largest educational gap but a small gender difference. The gender gap in attitudes toward working motherhood has persisted over time, with women holding more egalitarian attitudes than men. The educational disparity on this issue disappeared during the mid-1990s “stalled gender revolution” but has widened since. Although the “stall” occurred among all gender and educational groups on all four gender attitude measures, the decline was starkest among the college educated regarding working motherhood.

Cover page of Barriers to Career Flexibility in Academic Medicine: A Qualitative Analysis of Reasons for the Underutilization of Family-Friendly Policies, and Implications for Institutional Change and Department Chair Leadership.

Barriers to Career Flexibility in Academic Medicine: A Qualitative Analysis of Reasons for the Underutilization of Family-Friendly Policies, and Implications for Institutional Change and Department Chair Leadership.

(2018)

Purpose

Academic medical and biomedical professionals need workplace flexibility to manage the demands of work and family roles and meet their commitments to both, but often fail to use the very programs and benefits that provide flexibility. This study investigated the reasons for faculty underutilization of work-life programs.

Method

As part of a National Institutes of Health-funded study, in 2010 the authors investigated attitudes of clinical and/or research biomedical faculty at the University of California, Davis, toward work-life policies, and the rationale behind their individual decisions regarding use of flexibility policies. The analysis used verbatim responses from 213 of 472 faculty (448 unstructured comments) to a series of open-ended survey questions. Questions elicited faculty members' self-reports of policy use, attitudes, and evaluations of the policies, and their perceptions of barriers that limited full benefit utilization. Data were coded and analyzed using a grounded theory approach.

Results

Faculty described how their utilization of workplace flexibility benefits was inhibited by organizational influences: the absence of reliable information about program eligibility and benefits, workplace norms and cultures that stigmatized program participation, influence of uninformed/unsupportive department heads, and concerns about how participation might burden coworkers, damage collegial relationships, or adversely affect workflow and grant funding.

Conclusions

Understanding underuse of work-life programs is essential to maximize employee productivity and satisfaction, minimize turnover, and provide equal opportunities for career advancement to all faculty. The findings are discussed in relation to specific policy recommendations, implications for institutional change, and department chair leadership.