In this article, we prove that data assimilation by feedback nudging can be achieved for the three-dimensional quasi-geostrophic equation in a simplified scenario using only large spatial scale observables on the dynamical boundary. On this boundary, a scalar unknown (buoyancy or surface temperature of the fluid) satisfies the surface quasi-geostrophic equation. The feedback nudging is done on this two-dimensional model, yet ultimately synchronizes the streamfunction of the three-dimensional flow. The main analytical difficulties are due to the presence of a nonlocal dissipative operator in the surface quasi-geostrophic equation. This is overcome by exploiting a suitable partition of unity, the modulus of continuity characterization of Sobolev space norms, and the Littlewood-Paley decomposition to ultimately establish various boundedness and approximation-of-identity properties for the observation operators.
We prove that the partial zeta function introduced in  is a rational function, generalizing Dwork's rationality theorem.
A critical event in mammalian embryo development is construction of an inner cell mass surrounded by a trophoectoderm (a shell of cells that later form extraembryonic structures). We utilize multi-scale, stochastic modeling to investigate the design principles responsible for robust establishment of these structures. This investigation makes three predictions, each supported by our quantitative imaging. First, stochasticity in the expression of critical genes promotes cell plasticity and has a critical role in accurately organizing the developing mouse blastocyst. Second, asymmetry in the levels of noise variation (expression fluctuation) of Cdx2 and Oct4 provides a means to gain the benefits of noise-mediated plasticity while ameliorating the potentially detrimental effects of stochasticity. Finally, by controlling the timing and pace of cell fate specification, the embryo temporally modulates plasticity and creates a time window during which each cell can continually read its environment and adjusts its fate. These results suggest noise has a crucial role in maintaining cellular plasticity and organizing the blastocyst.