On 4 May 2022 the InSight seismometer SEIS‐VBB recorded the largest marsquake ever observed, S1222a, with an initial magnitude estimate of 4.6. Understanding the depth and source properties of this event has important implications for the nature of tectonic activity on Mars. Located ∼37° to the southeast of InSight, S1222a is one of the few non‐impact marsquakes that exhibits prominent surface waves. We use waveform modeling of body waves (P and S) and surface waves (Rayleigh and Love) to constrain the focal mechanism, assuming a double‐couple source, and find that S1222a likely resulted from reverse faulting in the crust (source depth near 22 km). We estimate the scalar moment to be 2.5 × 1015–3.5 × 1015 Nm (magnitude MW 4.2–4.3). Our results suggest active compressional tectonics near the dichotomy boundary on Mars, likely due to thermal contraction from planetary cooling.
Kuiper Belt objects exhibit a wider color range than any other solar system population. The origin of this color diversity is unknown, but likely the result of the prolonged irradiation of organic materials by galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). Here, we combine ultrahigh-vacuum irradiation experiments with comprehensive spectroscopic analyses to examine the color evolution during GCR processing methane and acetylene under Kuiper Belt conditions. This study replicates the colors of a population of Kuiper Belt objects such as Makemake, Orcus, and Salacia. Aromatic structural units carrying up to three rings as in phenanthrene (C14H10), phenalene (C9H10), and acenaphthylene (C12H8), of which some carry structural motives of DNA and RNA connected via unsaturated linkers, were found to play a key role in producing the reddish colors. These studies demonstrate the level of molecular complexity synthesized of GCR processing hydrocarbon and hint at the role played by irradiated ice in the early production of biological precursor molecules.
We present the first observations of seismic waves propagating through the core of Mars. These observations, made using seismic data collected by the InSight geophysical mission, have allowed us to construct the first seismically constrained models for the elastic properties of Mars' core. We observe core-transiting seismic phase SKS from two farside seismic events detected on Mars and measure the travel times of SKS relative to mantle traversing body waves. SKS travels through the core as a compressional wave, providing information about bulk modulus and density. We perform probabilistic inversions using the core-sensitive relative travel times together with gross geophysical data and travel times from other, more proximal, seismic events to seek the equation of state parameters that best describe the liquid iron-alloy core. Our inversions provide constraints on the velocities in Mars' core and are used to develop the first seismically based estimates of its composition. We show that models informed by our SKS data favor a somewhat smaller (median core radius = 1,780 to 1,810 km) and denser (core density = 6.2 to 6.3 g/cm3) core compared to previous estimates, with a P-wave velocity of 4.9 to 5.0 km/s at the core-mantle boundary, with the composition and structure of the mantle as a dominant source of uncertainty. We infer from our models that Mars' core contains a median of 20 to 22 wt% light alloying elements when we consider sulfur, oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen. These data can be used to inform models of planetary accretion, composition, and evolution.
We present the first results study of the effects of the powerful gamma-ray burst GRB 221009A that occurred on 2022 October 9, and was serendipitously recorded by electron and proton detectors on board the four spacecraft of the NASA THEMIS mission. Long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are powerful cosmic explosions, signaling the death of massive stars, and, among them, GRB 221009A is so far the brightest burst ever observed due to its enormous energy (E γ iso ≈ 1055 erg) and proximity (the redshift is z ≈ 0.1505). The THEMIS mission launched in 2008 was designed to study the plasma processes in the Earth’s magnetosphere and the solar wind. The particle flux measurements from the two inner magnetosphere THEMIS probes, THA and THE, and two outer probes (renamed ARTEMIS after 2010), THB and THC, orbiting the Moon captured the dynamics of GRB 221009A with a high time resolution of 4 (up to 8) measurements per second. This allowed us to resolve the fine structure of the GRB and determine the temporal scales of the two main bursts’ spiky structure, complementing the results from gamma-ray space telescopes and detectors.
We used 22 μm (W4) Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) observations of 4420 asteroids to analyze lightcurves, and determined spin period estimates for 1929 asteroids. We fit second-order Fourier models at a large number of trial frequencies to the W4 data and analyzed the resulting periodograms. We initially excluded rotational frequencies exceeding 7.57 rotations per day (P < 3.17 hr), which are not sampled adequately by WISE, and periods that exceed twice the WISE observation interval, which is typically 36 hr. We found that three solutions accurately capture the vast majority of the rotational frequencies in our sample: the best-fit frequency and its mirrors around 3.78 and 7.57 rotations per day. By comparing our solutions with a high-quality control group of 752 asteroid spin periods, we found that one of our solutions is accurate (within 5%) in 88% of the cases. The best-fit, secondary, and tertiary solutions are accurate in 55%, 27%, and 6% of the cases, respectively. We also observed that suppression of aliased solutions was more effective with nonuniform sampling than with quasi-uniform sampling.
The Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has been mapping the surface temperatures of the Moon since 5 July 2009. Diviner has since collected over 500 billion radiometric measurements with excellent spatial and local time coverage. However, the most recently published high-resolution Diviner global maps only use data collected from 2009 to 2016. In this work, we compile ∼13 years of Diviner data to produce improved global maps of nighttime brightness temperature, bolometric temperature, regolith temperature, and rock abundance (RA). Errors in Diviner's pointing have been corrected and past effective field of view modeling has been optimized to improve data georeferencing without spatial interpolation. We estimate an effective resolution of ∼330 m longitudinally and ∼700 m latitudinally at the equator, which corresponds to an improvement of ∼3.5× longitudinally and ∼1.3× latitudinally. In addition, we develop a thermal model that accounts for indirect scattering and emission from surrounding topography. The resulting temperature anomaly maps better highlight variations in temperature caused by thermophysical properties by removing most topographic effects. These improvements allow for the identification of smaller and fainter thermal features than was previously possible. The improved effective resolution of Diviner maps allows for excellent spatial correlation with other high-resolution data sets. To demonstrate this, we compare Diviner RA to a manual survey of boulders in the Apollo 17 landing site region. We show that Diviner RA correlates well with the areal fraction of rocks larger than ∼1–2 m in diameter visible in LRO Camera imagery.