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Open Access Publications from the University of California

About

The Williams Institute advances sexual orientation law and public policy through rigorous, independent research and scholarship, and disseminates it to judges, legislators, policymakers, media and the public. A national think tank at UCLA Law, the Williams Institute produces high quality research with real-world relevance.

Experts at the Williams Institute have authored dozens of public policy studies and law review articles, filed amicus briefs in key court cases, provided expert testimony at legislative hearings, been widely cited in the national media, and trained thousands of lawyers, judges and members of the public. By providing new ideas and reliable information, the Williams Institute makes a difference.

The Williams Institute

There are 567 publications in this collection, published between 2002 and 2017.
Census Snapshots (114)

California Census Snapshot: 2010

The Williams Institute Census 2010 Snapshots replace similar reports released in the summer of 2011 that relied on tabulations of same-sex couples that the Census Bureau has since revised. These analyses use preferred estimates of same-sex couples released by the Census Bureau that are considered to be more accurate than the tabulations released in the summer of 2011 (found in the Census 2010 SF-1 data, Table PCT15). Each Snapshot provides separate information about same-sex couples who identified as spouses and unmarried partners. Analyses focus on geographic distribution, sex of partners, and child-rearing.

LGBT African-American Individuals and African-American Same-Sex Couples

An estimated 1,018,700 or 3.7 percent of African-American adults consider themselves lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (LGBT) and 34 percent of African-American same-sex couples are raising children. Currently, the estimated 84,000 African-American individuals in same-sex couples tend to live in areas where there are higher proportions of African-Americans. For example, a quarter of African-American same-sex couples live in Georgia, New York, North Carolina, and Maryland.

The report finds overall higher unemployment rates (15 percent v. 12 percent) and lower proportions with a college degree (23 percent v. 26 percent) among LGBT African-Americans, when compared to their non-LGBT counterparts. However, these disadvantages are not present among African-Americans in same-sex couples. Twenty-five percent of African-Americans in same-sex couples have completed a college degree, compared to 22 percent of African-Americans in different-sex couples. In addition, 71 percent of African-Americans in same-sex couples are employed compared to 68 percent of their counterparts in different-sex couples. LGBT African-Americans are also less likely than their non-LGBT counterparts to have health insurance.

African-American same-sex couples raising children, report household median incomes $15,000 lower than comparable African-American different-sex couples ($47,300 vs. $63,020). Female African-American same-sex couples, which comprise 58 percent of all African-American same-sex couples, earn over $20,000 less than male African-American same-sex couples. LGBT African-American females and African-American females in same-sex couples are three times more likely to report military service than their non-LGBT counterparts.

Kansas Census Snapshot: 2010

The Williams Institute Census 2010 Snapshots replace similar reports released in the summer of 2011 that relied on tabulations of same-sex couples that the Census Bureau has since revised. These analyses use preferred estimates of same-sex couples released by the Census Bureau that are considered to be more accurate than the tabulations released in the summer of 2011 (found in the Census 2010 SF-1 data, Table PCT15). Each Snapshot provides separate information about same-sex couples who identified as spouses and unmarried partners. Analyses focus on geographic distribution, sex of partners, and child-rearing.

111 more worksshow all
Documenting Discrimination on the Basis of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in State Employment (73)

Texas – Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Law and Documentation of Discrimination

There are no state laws in Texas that prohibit employment discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity, although five of Texas’s six largest cities have local ordinances partially banning such discrimination in specific contexts.1 State legislators have repeatedly introduced bills at the state level to add sexual orientation and/or gender identity as protected classes in various contexts, although none of these bills has left the committee stage.

Arizona – Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Law and Documentation of Discrimination

There is no state-wide statute in Arizona that protects its LGBT citizens from employment discrimination in either the public or private sectors. Five municipalities have extended such protection through local ordinances. Those ordinances are inconsistent, however, with regard to inclusion of gender identity protection. In recent years there has been considerable debate in Arizona about the extension of partner benefits to public sector employees, but there is currently no such protection for state government employees. Indicia of hostility and animus toward gay people have surfaced during legislative consideration of these proposals.

Kansas – Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Law and Documentation of Discrimination

Currently, there is no state law in Kansas that prohibits employment discrimination based upon sexual orientation and gender identity.

70 more worksshow all
Postprints from The Williams Institute (27)

“We’d Be Free”: Narratives of Life Without Homophobia, Racism, or Sexism

This study examined the effects of exposure to everyday experiences of inequality. It finds that stigma and social inequality can increase stress and reduce well-being for LGB people,  even in the absence of major traumatic events such as hate crimes and discrimination. The study, funded by the National Institute of Mental Health, used qualitative analysis with 57 sexual minority men and women to identify aspects of stigma that are difficult to identify.  Subjects reported estrangement from families, failure to complete schooling, and isolation in the workplace. “Imagine living life anticipating exclusion from your friends, family and professional circles simply because of who you are and who you love – that resulting stress takes a toll on one’s life and health,” says co-author Dr. Ilan Meyer.  The research also found that, paradoxically, sexual minorities sometimes view stigma as having enhanced their lives and as having a defining impact on their identity. For example, LGB individuals who were forced to leave their hometowns found a more accepting community and new professional and personal opportunities in big cities that might not otherwise have been available to them.

Public Support for Marriage for Same-sex Couples by State

By the end of 2012, 12 states and the District of Columbia had support for same-sex marriage at or above 50%. Of these 12 states, all currently perform marriages, civil unions, or domestic partnerships for same-sex couples. Thirteen additional states presently are within 5 percentage points of majority support. In the last eight years, every state has increased in its support for marriage for same-sex couples with an average increase of 13.6%. If present public opinion trends continue, another 8 states will be above 50% support by the end of 2014.

Estimating the Economic Boost of Marriage Equality in Rhode Island

Extending marriage rights to same-sex couples in Rhode Island would bring an estimated $7 million to the state and local economy, including $5.5 million in additional wedding spending and $1.5 million in tourism expenditures made by out-of-town guests. Based on Rhode Island’s rates of 7 percent sales tax and 6 percent hotel and lodging tax, $530,000 in tax revenue will be generated for the state in the first three years same-sex couples may marry. The boost in travel spending will generate approximately 26 jobs in the state.

24 more worksshow all
Other Recent Work (353)

Sexual Minorities in the 2008 General Social Survey: Coming Out and Demographic Characteristics

Data from the 2008 General Social Survey (GSS) indicate that nearly 9% of adults either identify as gay, lesbian, or bisexual or report having had same-sex sexual experiences as an adult. Although 90% of LGB people are out about their identity to other people, only 25% report being out to all of their coworkers in the workplace. The data show that bisexuals differ in several ways from those who identify as gay or lesbian, including being much less likely to be out or have a high school diploma and being much more likely to be women and/or racial or ethnic minorities.

LGBT Vote 2012

Exit polls from the 2012 presidential election suggest that 5% of the electorate identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual. These LGB voters overwhelmingly supported President Obama for re-election. Exit polls suggest that the President garnered 76% of the LGB vote compared to 22% support for Gov. Mitt Romney. The strong LGBT support for President Obama was likely a key factor in his ability to win the national popular vote and the very close election in Florida. This research brief considers the impact of the LGBT vote on the Electoral College and explores the extent to which LGBT identity impacts the LGBT vote.

350 more worksshow all