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Government's ever-increasing participation in communication processes, Mark Yudof argues, threatens key democratic values that the First Amendment was designed to protect. Government control over the exchange of ideas and information would be inconsistent with citizen autonomy, informed consent, and a balanced and mutually responsive relationship between citizens and their government. Yet the danger of government dominance must be weighed against the necessary role of government in furthering democratic values by proposing and promotion policies and by disseminating information and educating citizens. Restraints on government's ability to control communications processes are desirable, but excessive or inappropriate restrictions threaten democracy. Professor Yudof identifies a number of formal and informal checks on government as disseminator, withholder, and controller of ideas and information. Where more controls are needed, the strengthening of pluralism and legislative oversight is generally the answer. Constitutional redress in the courts should be sought only in extreme instances, he cautions, to avoid judicial interference with legitimate policy objectives.
A Taxonomic Revision and Phylogenetic Analysis of the Ant Genus Gnamptogenys Roger in Southeast Asia and Australasia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ponerinae)
A taxonomic revision of the genus Gnamptogenys Roger in Southeast Asia and Australasia, based on the workers, recognizes forty nine species, twenty five of which are new, as follows: G. albiclava (Mann), G. aterrima (Mann), G. atrata sp. n., G. bicolor (Emery), G. biloba sp. n., G. binghamii (Forel), G. biroi (Emery), G. bulbopila sp. n., G. chapmani Brown, G. costata (Emery), G. coxalis (Roger), G. crassicornis (Forel), G. crenaticeps (Mann), G. cribrata (Emery), G. delta sp. n., G. epinotalis (Emery), G. fistulosa sp. n., G. gabata sp. n., G. gastrodeia sp. n., G. grammodes Brown, G. helisa sp. n., G. hyalina sp. n., G. lacunosa sp. n., G. laevior (Forel), G. leiolabia sp. n., G. lucida (Mann), G. luzonensis (Wheeler), G. macretes Brown, G. major (Emery), G. malaensis (Mann), G. meghalaya sp. n., G. menadensis (Mayr), G. niuguinense sp. n., G. ortostoma sp. n.,G. palamala sp. n.,G. panda (Brown), G. paso sp. n., G. pertusa sp. n., G. polytreta sp. n., G. posteropsis (Gregg), G. preciosa sp. n., G. rugodens sp. n., G. scalpta sp. n., G. sichuanensis sp. n., G. sila sp. n., G. sinensis Wu and Xiao, G. solomonensis sp. n., G. taivanensis (Wheeler), and G. treta sp. n. Five new synonymies are proposed: G. bicolor = G. bannana Xu and Zhang; G. crassicornis = G. spiralis (Karavaiev); G. cribrata = G. diehlii (Forel) = G. dammermani (Wheeler); G. laevior = G. kalabit Brown. Keys, illustrations, and species accounts are provided. Five species groups are recognized. A phylogenetic analysis for nineteen terminal taxa and sixty morphological characters using parsimony was carried out with PAUP, using the following taxa as outgroups: Heteroponera Mayr, Platythyrea Roger, and Myrmica incompleta Provancher. Four Old World Gnamptogenys species groups, as well as five individual species of a weakly supported clade were part of the ingroup. Additional ingroup taxa included five New World species of Gnamptogenys, Ectatomma F. Smith, and the hytidoponera impressa group. Monophyly of a clade formed by the genera Ectatomma, Rhytidoponera Mayr, and Gnamptogenys Roger is strongly supported. Monophyly of Gnamptogenys is supported by loss of a fore tibial seta. Neotropical taxa form sister relationships with Old World lineages at several points in the tree.
The purpose of this volume is to encourage and facilitate focused research and provide a forum for scholarly exchange about the status of Mayfly and Stonefly science. Professor John Brittain, whose research is focused on freshwater entomology, especially egg development and life cycle strategies of Ephemeroptera and Plecoptera, presents a chapter reflecting on the quality of mayflies as good indicators of global warming and the quality of streams and lakes. Professor Emeritus Andrew Sheldon, whose interests have encompassed community and population ecology of aquatic animals over a span of more than 40 years, especially insects and fishes, explores topics of Scale and Hierarchy and the Ecology of Plecoptera, discussing how studies emphasizing scale and perspective reveal importance of stoneflies to ecosystems. Other topics cover a broad base of disciplines including morphology, physiology, phylogeny, taxonomy, ecology and conservation. The chapters have been compiled into three sections for this volume: Ecology, Zoogeography and Systematics.
Species and genera of the wasp family Chrysididae in California are reviewed and their California and overall distributions mapped. In addition, keys to California genera and species, and discussions of these species are given. Three new synonymies are given, Chrysis eurekana Linsenmaier 1994 and Chrysis angustianalis Linsenmaier 1994 under Chrysis nitidula Fabricius, and Chrysis antiochicola Linsenmaier 1994 under Chrysis schusteri Bohart 1982.
The subfamily Sthenurinae (Macropodoidea, Diprotodontia) is an extinct group of robust kangaroos. The earliest sthenurine appears in the late Miocene of central Australia, but the group is most common in the Pleistocene faunas of southern and eastern Australia. Since the Sthenurinae was last reviewed over three decades ago, species diversity has more than doubled. Many species are now also represented by series of well-preserved specimens, including complete crania and skeletons. New insights generated by these discoveries provided the major impetus for this review of sthenurine systematics, functional morphology, paleoecology, biochronology and zoogeography.
Sthenurinae is diagnosed on the basis of nine craniodental synapomorphies, making it the best-defined kangaroo subfamily. Two new genera and four new species are recognized here, bringing the total to six genera and 26 species. A new tribe (Simosthenurini) is raised to include the three short-faced genera: Archaeosimos gen. nov., Simosthenurus and Procoptodon. A cladistic analysis of interrelationships within the Sthenurinae has prompted the dismissal of concerns previously expressed about the distinction of Simosthenurus and Sthenurus. However, Simosthenurus (sensu lato) is paraphyletic, because Procoptodon is derived from within it. Several molar crests hypertrophied in the more derived Procoptodon species are believed to be a result of phylogenetic character reversal, a phenomenon that may be an important but previously neglected mechanism of evolutionary change within the Macropodoidea. Compelling evidence suggests a paraphyletic origin for the Sthenurinae from within the late Oligocene to middle Miocene subfamily Bulungamayinae. The middle Miocene bulungamayine Wanburoo is the sister taxon of the Sthenurinae, which along with the late Miocene occurrences of Hadronomas in central Australia and Archaeosimos in southern Australia, supports a middle Miocene origin for the subfamily. No support is found for the hypothesis that Troposodon and Lagostrophus are sthenurines. These two genera have a closer affinity with the macropodines and are probably most closely allied to each other and Protemnodon. Craniodental similarities shared with the sthenurines are likely to reflect dietary convergence.
A fundamental step in the phylogenesis of the sthenurine lineage was the attainment of relatively large body size. The plesiomorphic Hadronomas exemplifies the sthenurine bauplan: it is the earliest macropodoid in the fossil record larger than a small wallaby, and several craniodental attributes indicate that it was capable of generating larger occlusal forces during the apprehension and mastication of food than any other Miocene macropodoids. The evolution of sthenurines was most likely a direct faunal response to the decline in mesic conditions from the middle Miocene. All sthenurines apart from Hadronomas are united by nine craniodental traits that represent a crucial circumvention of the constraints that probably restricted Hadronomas to only a moderately fibrous diet.
The masticatory muscles became more anteriorly oriented, the orbits became anterolaterally projected, the mandibular symphysis was rigidified, grinding became the primary function of the premolars, the cheek tooth row became laterally curved, and molar complexity increased. These adaptations improved the capacity of the craniodental system for breaking down tough vegetation and they paved the way for the cranial foreshortening characteristic of the Simosthenurini, which originated in the late Miocene.
No less than 14 of the 18 simosthenurin species recognized occur in the middle or late Pleistocene cave assemblages of southern and eastern Australia. Simosthenurins filled many of the browser niches available throughout the temperate woodlands and open forests of the Pleistocene, and the lineage may have originated in transitional areas between the retracting wetter forests and expanding sclerophyll habitats of the southeast during the late Miocene. Some Pleistocene species, such as Simosthenurus maddocki, were apparently highly selective feeders, while others were generalists. The evolution of Procoptodon is likely to have been prompted by the marked expansion of dry sclerophyll vegetation and open conditions following the intensification of aridity in the latter half of the Pliocene. P. goliah, the largest and most robust of all macropodoids, was the only simosthenurin widely distributed throughout the continental interior and was apparently adapted to the consumption of a tougher diet than any other sthenurine. In contrast to Procoptodon, three of the six Pleistocene species of Sthenurus had already evolved by the early late Pliocene. This lineage maintained a stronghold in the interior of the continent during the Pleistocene and is characterized by a more gracile build, longer face, broader incisors and higher-crowned molars than the Simosthenurini. Sthenurus species may have subsisted on the small-leafed, xeromorphic shrubs and low, dusty forbs still common throughout inland Australia today. Although sthenurine diversity and abundance reached its zenith during the middle and early late Pleistocene, all species were extinct by the end of the epoch. On the basis of data currently available, the demise of this remarkable radiation of browsing mammals appears most likely to have resulted from attrition over an extended duration due primarily to human hunting pressure.
Wappo is an indigenous language, generally regarded as a language isolate, which was once spoken in the Russian River Valley, just north of San Francisco, California. This reference grammar is based on the speech of Laura Fish Somersal, its last fluent speaker, who died in 1990, and represents the most extensive data and grammatical research ever done on this language. The grammar focuses on morphosyntax, particularly nominal, verbal, and clausal structures and clause combining patterns, from a functional/typological perspective.
This 800-page volume is a clear and readable presentation of the current state of research on the history of the Tibeto-Burman (TB) language family, a typologically diverse group of over 250 languages spoken in Southern China, the Himalayas, NE India, and peninsular Southeast Asia. The TB languages are the only proven relatives of Chinese, with which they form the great Sino-Tibetan family.
The exposition is systematic, treating the reconstruction of all the elements of the TB proto-syllable in turn, including initial consonants (Ch. III), prefixes (Ch. IV), monophthongal and diphthongal rhymes (Ch. V), final nasals (Ch. VII), final stops (Ch. VIII), final liquids (Ch. IX), root-final *-s (Ch. X), suffixes (Ch. XI). Particular attention is paid to variational phenomena at all historical levels (e.g. Ch. XII "Allofamic variation in rhymes").
This Handbook builds on the best previous scholarship, and adds up-to-date material that has accumulated over the past 30 years. It contains reconstructions of over a thousand Tibeto-Burman roots, as well as suggested comparisons with several hundred Chinese etyma. It is liberally indexed and cross-referenced for maximum accessibility and internal consistency.
Emphasis is placed on the special theoretical issues involved in historical reconstruction in the East/Southeast Asian linguistic area.
In one of the most thorough studies ever prepared of a California language, Hill’s grammar reviews the phonology, morphology, syntax and discourse features of Cupeño, a Uto-Aztecan (takic) language of California. Cupeño exhibits many unusual typological features, including split ergativity, that require linguists to revise our understanding of the development of the Uto-Aztecan family of languages in historical and areal perspective.
Brief History of Herpetology in the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, University of California, Berkeley, with a List of Type Specimens of Recent Amphibians and Reptiles
An overview of the herpetological program of the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology (MVZ), University of California, Berkeley, is presented. The history of herpetological activities in the MVZ and more generally at Berkeley is summarized. Although the MVZ has existed since 1908, until 1945 there was no formal curator for the collection of amphibians and nonavian reptiles. Since that time Robert C. Stebbins, David B. Wake, Harry W. Greene, Javier A. Rodríguez-Robles (in an interim capacity), and Craig Moritz have served in that position. All type specimens of recent amphibians and nonavian reptiles in the collection are listed. The 1,765 type specimens in the MVZ comprise 120 holotypes, three neotypes, three syntypes, and 1,639 paratopotypes and paratypes; 83 of the holotypes were originally described as full species. Of the 196 amphibian and nonavian reptilian taxa represented by type material, most were collected in México (63) and California (USA, 54). Information is also provided concerning the collection. The first entry in the herpetological catalog in the MVZ was made on March 13, 1909 (MVZ 1, Crotaphytus bicinctores), and as of December 31, 2001, the collection contained 232,254 specimens of amphibians and nonavian reptiles. Taxonomically, the collection is strongest in salamanders, accounting for 99,176 specimens, followed by "lizards" (squamate reptiles other than snakes and amphisbaenians) (63,439), frogs (40,563), snakes (24,937), turtles (2,643), caecilians (979), amphisbaenians (451), crocodilians (63), and tuataras (3). A list, exclusive of abstracts and book reviews, of more than 1,300 articles, book chapters, and books on any aspect of the biology of amphibians published by researchers associated with the MVZ since its founding is available online at http://www.mip.berkeley.edu/mvz/collections/MVZHerpPubs.htm
Mammalian Diversification: From Chromosomes to Phylogeography (A Celebration of the Career of James L. Patton)
James L. Patton served as Curator of Mammals in the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology (MVZ) and as Professor of Integrative Biology (formerly Zoology) at the University of California, Berkeley, from January, 1969 until June, 2001. During his 32 years as a curator and a member of the Berkeley faculty, Jim made an indelible mark on vertebrate evolutionary biology through his tireless pursuit of excellence in research and teaching. In addition to significantly advancing studies of mammalian evolutionary genetics, systematics, and phylogeography, Jim was instrumental in shaping the careers of vertebrate biologists throughout the Americas. Given the magnitude of his impact on studies of mammals, it seemed only appropriate to celebrate Jim’s retirement from the Berkeley faculty by compiling a volume that reflects the breadth of his contributions to vertebrate biology. At the same time, everyone involved in the project agreed that the volume should capture something of Jim, the person. As those of us who have had the privilege of working with him know, Jim is an enthusiastic, generous, no-nonsense individual who doesn’t hesitate to support his students and colleagues in any way that he can. Thus, while Jim’s intellect and work ethic have made him a successful scientist, it is his personality that has endeared him to so many of his students and colleagues. Here, we try to capture both elements of Jim’s career. The result is a series of rigorous, original research papers combined with more informal recollections of Jim’s activities as a scholar, mentor, and museum curator. For those readers who have not had the opportunity to interact with Jim, we hope that the following pages will bring to life both the distinguished career and the distinctive personality of this highly respected evolutionary biologist.
Records of parasitism in crocodilians date back to the early 1800s, distributed among various types of published and unpublished materials. Analyzing parasite-host specificity, geographic distribution, and taxonomy can provide otherwise cryptic details about crocodilian ecology and evolution, as well as their local food web dynamics. This information is critical for improved conservation tactics for both crocodilians and their habitat.As climate change, anthropogenic conflict, and environmental pollution endanger crocodilian ecosystems, there is a need for organized information on crocodile, alligator, caiman, and gharial infectious diseases. This volume meets this need by delivering the first checklist of crocodilians and their parasites for researchers and scholars in biology, herpetology, and ecology in order to further the knowledge and study of crocodilian-parasite dynamics and improve our understanding of human impacts on ecosystems.