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Open Access Publications from the University of California

The UC Santa Barbara Library enables exploration and collaboration for scholars in their intellectual engagement with the world of ideas and the creation of knowledge, with a vision toward empowering a lifetime of research, discovery and learning. The Library is committed to collaboration, integrity, innovation, leadership, research, and learning.

Cover page of From Slavery to College Loans

From Slavery to College Loans


My story begins back in 1793 when November Caldwell was “gifted” to Helen Hogg Hooper (whose father-in-law, William Hooper, signed the Declaration of Independence), the wife of the first president of UNC–Chapel Hill, Joseph Caldwell. November Caldwell is my great-great-great-grandfather. Currently, I owe over six figures in student-loan debt to the very institution that enslaved my ancestors. We are at a particular place in the political history of our nation. White supremacy is morally corrupt. It requires that we deny the humanity of human beings for one reason or another. It is hard to stand up against white supremacy because folks who do are often ostracized from their families and communities. We have all been socialized to believe in white supremacy—it was one of our nation’s founding principles. In this essay I hope to break open a dialogue about the white supremacist hegemony institutionalized within our neoliberal university system. Connecting the past atrocities of slavery with actual educational experiences of the descendants of those who served the proslavery institutions has not been widely publicized or talked about. We must interrogate our history or we will be doomed to continue to repeat the horrific inhumane atrocities.

Cover page of Darkseid's Ring: Images of Anti-Life in Kirby and Tolkien

Darkseid's Ring: Images of Anti-Life in Kirby and Tolkien


What is the nature of ultimate evil?  Answers will vary, but it is logical to say that they will depend on what one considers to be the core of humanity: that which attacks that core is the ultimate evil.  Evidence in Jack Kirby's "Fourth World" mythos and J. R. R. Tolkien's "Middle-earth" mythos suggests that they both saw free will at the core of humanity, and that ultimate evil lies in the domination and subjugation of the will of others.  Kirby symbolized this evil in the "Anti-Life Equation"; Tolkien in the One Ring of Sauron.  This paper will compare the images of evil in the two authors'  works.

Arnhold-Punctum Publishing Lab at UCSB Library: A Case Study in Library-Publisher Collaboration


Blog post: At the Arnhold-Punctum Publishing Lab at UCSB Library, undergraduate students are doing the work of publishing scholarly monographs. The unusual cohort of academics responsible for the launch and success of this Lab believes that the future of scholarly publishing is a collaborative, community-based, mission-driven, and service-oriented endeavor that engages teams with a range of skills, knowledge, expertise, and resources.

Cover page of Evaluation of Academic Library Residency Programs in the United States for Librarians of Color

Evaluation of Academic Library Residency Programs in the United States for Librarians of Color


The purpose of this research was to evaluate academic library residency programs that successfully recruit and retain academic librarians of color. This study examines library residencies in the United States and discusses findings of two nationwide surveys. One survey posed questions to residents about the structure of their residencies, aspects residents found most helpful for career advancement, and their thoughts on diversity initiatives. The coordinators were asked many of the same questions as the residents but also about the administrative aspects of their programs. The survey responses reveal a need to provide residents with structured mentoring, along with a sense of belonging and value. Library residency programs can play an integral part in the larger recruitment, retention, and diversity initiatives in the profession.**

Black Women Misbehavin': A New Politics of Sexuality



Cover page of Faculty/Researcher Survey on Data Curation

Faculty/Researcher Survey on Data Curation


In 2012 the Data Curation @ UCSB Project surveyed UCSB campus faculty and researchers on the subject of data curation, with the goals of 1) better understanding the scope of the digital curation problem and the curation services that are needed, and 2) characterizing the role that the UCSB Library might play in supporting curation of campus research outputs.  The findings argue for the establishment of a campus unit possessing data curation expertise and providing curation-related assistance to campus researchers, and possibly hosting curation services.

Cover page of Building Faculty Support for Remote Storage: A Survey of Collection Behaviors and Preferences

Building Faculty Support for Remote Storage: A Survey of Collection Behaviors and Preferences


A seismic retrofitting project required the UCSB Library (University of California, Santa Barbara) to permanently reduce its on-site collections by 120,000 volumes. To accomplish this successfully, a strong collaboration with the faculty was essential. This article describes a planning process in which the library worked with a faculty committee to implement a campus-wide survey of faculty and graduate students regarding their behaviors and preferences in accessing and using the collections. The survey outcomes informed a common understanding of which physical materials should re- main on-site and which could be moved to storage with the least impact on research and teaching.

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Cover page of Between a Rock and a Hard Place: Habitat Selection in Female-Calf Humpback Whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) Pairs on the Hawaiian Breeding Grounds

Between a Rock and a Hard Place: Habitat Selection in Female-Calf Humpback Whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) Pairs on the Hawaiian Breeding Grounds


The Au'au Channel between the islands of Maui and Lanai, Hawaii comprises critical breeding habitat for humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) of the Central North Pacific stock. However, like many regions where marine mega-fauna gather, these waters are also the focus of a flourishing local eco-tourism and whale watching industry. Our aim was to establish current trends in habitat preference in female-calf humpback whale pairs within this region, focusing specifically on the busy, eastern portions of the channel. We used an equally-spaced zigzag transect survey design, compiled our results in a GIS model to identify spatial trends and calculated Neu's Indices to quantify levels of habitat use. Our study revealed that while mysticete female-calf pairs on breeding grounds typically favor shallow, inshore waters, female-calf pairs in the Au'au Channel avoided shallow waters (<20 m) and regions within 2 km of the shoreline. Preferred regions for female-calf pairs comprised water depths between 40-60 m, regions of rugged bottom topography and regions that lay between 4 and 6 km from a small boat harbor (Lahaina Harbor) that fell within the study area. In contrast to other humpback whale breeding grounds, there was only minimal evidence of typical patterns of stratification or segregation according to group composition. A review of habitat use by maternal females across Hawaiian waters indicates that maternal habitat choice varies between localities within the Hawaiian Islands, suggesting that maternal females alter their use of habitat according to locally varying pressures. This ability to respond to varying environments may be the key that allows wildlife species to persist in regions where human activity and critical habitat overlap.

Cover page of Virtual Museums:  When Do They Become “Real”?

Virtual Museums:  When Do They Become “Real”?


With the launch of massively multiplayer online roleplaying games (MMORPGs), players were given the opportunity to build their own communities within the confines of virtual worlds created by the game developers.  When Star Wars Galaxies was launched in June 2003, players were also given the opportunity to manipulate their environment.  SWG Developers not only allowed players to place structures within the landscape of the game, but also gave them the opportunity to decorate the interiors of their buildings.  It wasn’t long before players began to open their own museums.  At first, the museums were nothing more than decorated houses containing developer-made paintings and objects.  Eventually, however, the museums evolved and now there are quite a number that include interpretive labels, thematic exhibits, and more.  While some of these museums are quite well known within their communities, they are virtually unknown by those who do not play the game. 

That is not the case for the museums in another virtual community, however.  The emergence of museums in the virtual world of Second Life has been the topic of much discussion in the museum community.  Also launched in 2003, Second Life presents itself as a 3-D virtual world rather than a game.  In the world of Second Life players can create just about anything they can imagine and add it to the environment including, of course, museums.  Some of those museums have been replicas of real-life museums created by private individuals.  Other museums in this virtual environment were created as initiatives of established real-world museums.  But there are some museums in Second Life that only exist in that virtual landscape.  The International Space Museum, one such museum, has spawned a real-life non-profit organization to support the work of the virtual museum. 

All of this activity in virtual museums brings with it some interesting questions for members of the museum community.  Are virtual museums “real” museums?  And if they are, what are the implications for established real-life museums?  This paper will examine a variety of museums in two virtual environments ― the MMORPG Star Wars Galaxies and the virtual world of Second Life.  It will apply established definitions of what is a museum and determine which of those virtual museums appear to meet the criteria.  Finally, it will draw conclusions about the “realness” of virtual museums and the potential of these institutions for reaching new audiences. 

  • 2 supplemental PDFs