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Open Access Publications from the University of California

Department of NanoEngineering

There are 597 publications in this collection, published between 2005 and 2024.
NanoEngineering UCSD - Open Access Policy Deposits (595)

Point-of-Care Devices for Viral Detection: COVID-19 Pandemic and Beyond.

The pandemic of COVID-19 and its widespread transmission have made us realize the importance of early, quick diagnostic tests for facilitating effective cure and management. The primary obstacles encountered were accurately distinguishing COVID-19 from other illnesses including the flu, common cold, etc. While the polymerase chain reaction technique is a robust technique for the determination of SARS-CoV-2 in patients of COVID-19, there arises a high demand for affordable, quick, user-friendly, and precise point-of-care (POC) diagnostic in therapeutic settings. The necessity for available tests with rapid outcomes spurred the advancement of POC tests that are characterized by speed, automation, and high precision and accuracy. Paper-based POC devices have gained increasing interest in recent years because of rapid, low-cost detection without requiring external instruments. At present, microfluidic paper-based analysis devices have garnered public attention and accelerated the development of such POCT for efficient multistep assays. In the current review, our focus will be on the fabrication of detection modules for SARS-CoV-2. Here, we have included a discussion on various strategies for the detection of viral moieties. The compilation of these strategies would offer comprehensive insight into the detection of the causative agent preparedness for future pandemics. We also provide a descriptive outline for paper-based diagnostic platforms, involving the determination mechanisms, as well as a commercial kit for COVID-19 as well as their outlook.

Plant Virus-Like Particle In Situ Vaccine for Intracranial Glioma Immunotherapy

Despite aggressive multi-modality treatment with surgery, radiation and chemotherapies, malignant glioma inevitably recurs and has dismal survival rates. Recent progress in immunotherapy has led to a resurgence of interest, and immunotherapies are being investigated for treatment of glioma. However, the unique brain anatomy and a highly immunosuppressive glioma microenvironment pose significant challenges to achieving efficacy. Thus, there is a critical need for assessment of next-generation immunotherapies for glioma. In this study, we have investigated the efficacy of the nanoparticle platform technology based on plant-derived Cowpea mosaic virus like particles (empty CPMV or eCPMV) to instigate a potent immune response against intracranial glioma. CPMV immunotherapy has been shown to efficiently reverse the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironments in pre-clinical murine models of dermal melanoma and metastatic melanoma, metastatic breast cancer, intraperitoneal ovarian cancer and in canine patients with oral melanoma. In the present study, we demonstrate that in situ administration of CPMV immunotherapy in the setting of glioma can effectively recruit unique subset of effector innate and adaptive immune cells to the brain parenchyma while reducing immune suppressive cellular population, leading to regression of intracranial glioma. The in situ CPMV nanoparticle vaccine offers a potent yet safe and localized immunotherapy for intracranial glioma.

Freeze-Drying To Produce Efficacious CPMV Virus-like Particles

In situ cancer vaccination that uses immune stimulating agents is revolutionizing the way that cancer is treated. In this realm, viruses and noninfectious virus-like particles have gained significant traction in reprogramming the immune system to recognize and eliminate malignancies. Recently, cowpea mosaic virus-like particles (VLPs) have shown exceptional promise in their ability to fight a variety of cancers. However, the current methods used to produce CPMV VLPs rely on agroinfiltration in plants. These protocols remain complicated and labor intensive and have the potential to introduce unwanted immunostimulatory agents, like lipopolysaccharides. This Letter describes a simple "post-processing" method to remove RNA from wild-type CPMV, while retaining the structure and function of the capsid. Lyophilization was able to eject encapsulated RNA to form lyo-eCPMV and, when purified, eliminated nearly all traces of encapsulated RNA. Lyo-eCPMV was characterized by cryo-electron microscopy single particle reconstruction to confirm the structural integrity of the viral capsid. Finally, lyo-eCPMV showed  equivalent anticancer efficacy as eCPMV, produced by agroinfiltration, when using an invasive melanoma model. These results describe a straightforward method to prepare CPMV VLPs from infectious virions.

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Open Educational Resources, NanoEngineering UCSD (1)