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Development of a new multidimensional individual and interpersonal resilience measure for older adults.
Develop an empirically grounded measure that can be used to assess family and individual resilience in a population of older adults (aged 50-99).Cross-sectional, self-report data from 1006 older adults were analyzed in two steps. The total sample was split into two subsamples and the first step identified the underlying latent structure through principal component exploratory factor analysis (EFA). The second step utilized the second half of the sample to validate the derived latent structure through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA).EFA produced an eight-factor structure that appeared clinically relevant for measuring the multidimensional nature of resilience. Factors included self-efficacy, access to social support network, optimism, perceived economic and social resources, spirituality and religiosity, relational accord, emotional expression and communication, and emotional regulation. CFA confirmed the eight-factor structure previously achieved with covariance between each of the factors. Based on these analyses we developed the multidimensional individual and interpersonal resilience measure, a broad assessment of resilience for older adults.This study highlights the multidimensional nature of resilience and introduces an individual and interpersonal resilience measure developed for older adults which is grounded in the individual and family resilience literature.
At-Risk Alcohol Use is Associated with Antiretroviral Treatment Nonadherence Among Adults Living with HIV/AIDS.
BACKGROUND:Alcohol use is a risk factor for nonadherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA); however, differences in ART adherence across levels of alcohol use are unclear. This study examined whether "at-risk" alcohol use, defined by National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism guidelines, was associated with ART nonadherence among PLWHA. METHODS:Participants were 535 HIV-infected adults enrolled in studies at the HIV Neurobehavioral Research Program. ART nonadherence was identified by either self-reported missed dose or plasma viral load detectability (≥50 copies/ml). Potential covariates for multivariable logistic regression included demographics, depression, and substance use disorders. RESULTS:Using a stepwise model selection procedure, we found that at-risk alcohol use (OR = 0.64; p = 0.032) and low education (OR = 1.09 per 1 year increase in education; p = 0.009) significantly predict lower ART adherence. CONCLUSIONS:A greater focus on the treatment of at-risk alcohol use may improve ART adherence among HIV-infected persons.
Neurocognitive SuperAging in Older Adults Living With HIV: Demographic, Neuromedical and Everyday Functioning Correlates.
OBJECTIVES:Studies of neurocognitively elite older adults, termed SuperAgers, have identified clinical predictors and neurobiological indicators of resilience against age-related neurocognitive decline. Despite rising rates of older persons living with HIV (PLWH), SuperAging (SA) in PLWH remains undefined. We aimed to establish neuropsychological criteria for SA in PLWH and examined clinically relevant correlates of SA. METHODS:734 PLWH and 123 HIV-uninfected participants between 50 and 64 years of age underwent neuropsychological and neuromedical evaluations. SA was defined as demographically corrected (i.e., sex, race/ethnicity, education) global neurocognitive performance within normal range for 25-year-olds. Remaining participants were labeled cognitively normal (CN) or impaired (CI) based on actual age. Chi-square and analysis of variance tests examined HIV group differences on neurocognitive status and demographics. Within PLWH, neurocognitive status differences were tested on HIV disease characteristics, medical comorbidities, and everyday functioning. Multinomial logistic regression explored independent predictors of neurocognitive status. RESULTS:Neurocognitive status rates and demographic characteristics differed between PLWH (SA=17%; CN=38%; CI=45%) and HIV-uninfected participants (SA=35%; CN=55%; CI=11%). In PLWH, neurocognitive groups were comparable on demographic and HIV disease characteristics. Younger age, higher verbal IQ, absence of diabetes, fewer depressive symptoms, and lifetime cannabis use disorder increased likelihood of SA. SA reported increased independence in everyday functioning, employment, and health-related quality of life than non-SA. CONCLUSIONS:Despite combined neurological risk of aging and HIV, youthful neurocognitive performance is possible for older PLWH. SA relates to improved real-world functioning and may be better explained by cognitive reserve and maintenance of cardiometabolic and mental health than HIV disease severity. Future research investigating biomarker and lifestyle (e.g., physical activity) correlates of SA may help identify modifiable neuroprotective factors against HIV-related neurobiological aging. (JINS, 2019, 25, 507-519).