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Patient Participation in the Development of a Customized M-Health Intervention to Improve Medication Adherence in Poorly Adherent Individuals with Bipolar Disorder (BD) and Hypertension (HTN).
Objective:Individuals living with bipolar disorder (BD) have poorer management of chronic medical conditions such as hypertension (HTN), and worse treatment adherence than the general population. The study objective was to obtain information from patients with both BD and HTN that would inform the development of an m-Health intervention to improve medication adherence for poorly adherent individuals living with both these chronic illnesses. Methods:Focus group methodology was used to collect information from 13 participants on perceived barriers and facilitators to BD and HTN medication adherence, as well as feedback on the demonstration and use of a bidirectional text messaging system for medication reminders. Focus groups were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using content analysis with an emphasis on dominant themes. Results:Forgetfulness was the most frequently mentioned barrier to taking antihypertensive medications, and decisions about taking them were often influenced by BD mood fluctuations and the burden of having to take "too many pills" for both chronic illnesses. Participants' feedback about the use of a text-messaging system to help with medication adherence for BD and HTN was very positive, and their suggestions for modification were incorporated into a more customized system for testing in a Phase 2 trial. Conclusions:Our findings indicate that patient engagement in the development of an m-health intervention has the potential to improve adherence with both BD and HTN medications in individuals with known sub-optimal adherence. Patient engagement in health care is essential if we are to optimize patient outcomes.
Altered cingulate and insular cortex activation during risk-taking in methamphetamine dependence: losses lose impact.
To determine if methamphetamine-dependent (MD) individuals exhibit behavioral or neural processing differences in risk-taking relative to healthy comparison participants (CTL).This was a cross-sectional study comparing two groups' behavior on a risk-taking task and neural processing as assessed using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).The study was conducted in an in-patient treatment center and a research fMRI facility in the United States.Sixty-eight recently abstinent MD individuals recruited from a treatment program and 40 CTL recruited from the community completed the study.The study assessed risk-taking behavior (overall and post-loss) using the Risky Gains Task (RGT), sensation-seeking, impulsivity and blood-oxygenation-level-dependent activation in the brain during the decision phase of the RGT.Relative to CTL, MD displayed decreased activation in the bilateral rostral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and greater activation in the left insula across risky and safe decisions (P < 0.05). Right mid-insula activation among CTL did not vary between risky and safe decisions, but among MD it was higher during risky relative to safe decisions (P < 0.05). Among MD, lower activation in the right rostral ACC (r = -0.39, P < 0.01) and higher activation in the right mid-insula (r = 0.35, P < 0.01) during risky decisions were linked to a higher likelihood of choosing a risky option following a loss.Methamphetamine-dependent individuals show disrupted risk-related processing in both anterior cingulate and insula, brain areas that have been implicated in cognitive control and interoceptive processing. Attenuated neural processing of risky options may lead to risk-taking despite experiencing negative consequences.
Hombre Seguro (Safe Men): a sexual risk reduction intervention for male clients of female sex workers.
Male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) are at risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We conducted a two-arm randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of a sexual risk reduction intervention for male clients of FSWs in Tijuana, Mexico.Male clients of FSWs who were at least 18, were HIV-negative at baseline, and reported recent unprotected sex with FSWs were randomized to the Hombre Seguro sexual risk reduction intervention, or a time-attention didactic control condition. Each condition lasted approximately one hour. Participants underwent interviewer-administered surveys and testing for HIV and other STIs at baseline, and at 4, 8, and 12 month follow-ups. Combined HIV/STI incidence and unprotected vaginal and anal sex acts with FSWs were the primary outcomes.A total of 400 participants were randomized to one of the two conditions. Analyses indicated that randomization was successful; there were no significant differences between the participants in the two conditions at baseline. Average follow-up was 84% across both conditions. This is the first study to test the efficacy of a sexual risk reduction intervention for male clients of FSWs using the rigor of a randomized controlled trial.NCT01280838, Date of registration: January 19, 2011.