ObjectiveTo determine the evolution of numerous neuropsychiatric symptoms and cognitive abilities in Parkinson disease from disease onset.
MethodsProspectively collected, longitudinal (untreated, disease onset to year 5), observational data from Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative annual visits was used to evaluate prevalence, correlates, and treatment of 10 neuropsychiatric symptoms and cognitive impairment in Parkinson disease participants and matched healthy controls.
ResultsOf 423 Parkinson disease participants evaluated at baseline, 315 (74.5%) were assessed at year 5. Eight neuropsychiatric symptoms studied increased in absolute prevalence by 6.2-20.9% at year 5 relative to baseline, and cognitive impairment increased by 2.7-6.2%. In comparison, the frequency of neuropsychiatric symptoms in healthy controls remained stable or declined over time. Antidepressant and anxiolytic/hypnotic use in Parkinson disease were common at baseline and increased over time (18% to 27% for the former; 13% to 24% for the latter); antipsychotic and cognitive-enhancing medication use was uncommon throughout (2% and 5% of patients at year 5); and potentially harmful anticholinergic medication use was common and increased over time. At year 5 the cross-sectional prevalence for having three or more neuropsychiatric disorders/cognitive impairment was 56% for Parkinson disease participants versus 13% for healthy controls, and by then seven of the examined disorders had either occurred or been treated at some time point in the majority of Parkinson disease patients. Principal component analysis suggested an affective disorder subtype only.
InterpretationNeuropsychiatric features in Parkinson disease are common from the onset, increase over time, are frequently comorbid, and fluctuate in severity.