Simulating physical materials with dynamic movements to photo-realistic resolution has always been one of the most crucial and challenging topics in Computer Graphics. This dissertation considers large-strain elastoplasticity theory applied to the low-to-medium stiffness regime, with topological changes and codimensional objects incorporated. We introduce improvements to the Material Point Method (MPM) for two particular objectives, simulating fracturing ductile materials and incorporation of MPM and Lagrangian Finite Element Method (FEM).
Our first contribution, simulating ductile fracture, utilizes traditional particle-based MPM [SSC13, SCS94] as well as the Lagrangian energy formulation of [JSS15] which uses a tetrahedron mesh, rather than particle-based estimation of the deformation gradient and potential energy. We model failure and fracture via elastoplasticity with damage. The material is elastic until its deformation exceeds a Rankine or von Mises yield condition. At that point, we use a softening model that shrinks the yield surface until it reaches the damage thresh- old. Once damaged, the material Lam ́e coefficients are modified to represent failed material. This approach to simulating ductile fracture with MPM is successful, as MPM naturally captures the topological changes coming from the fracture. However, rendering the crack surfaces can be challenging. We design a novel visualization technique dedicated to rendering the material’s boundary and its intersection with the evolving crack surfaces. Our approach uses a simple and efficient element splitting strategy for tetrahedron meshes to create crack surfaces. It employs an extrapolation technique based on the MPM simulation. For traditional particle-based MPM, we use an initial Delaunay tetrahedralization to connect randomly sampled MPM particles. Our visualization technique is a post-process and can run after the MPM simulation for efficiency. We demonstrate our method with several challenging simulations of ductile failure with considerable and persistent self-contact and applications with thermomechanical models for baking and cooking.
Our second contribution, hybrid MPM–Lagrangian-FEM, aims to simulate elastic objects like hair, rubber, and soft tissues. It utilizes a Lagrangian mesh for internal force computation and a Eulerian grid for self-collision, as well as coupling with external materials. While recent MPM techniques allow for natural simulation of hyperelastic materials represented with Lagrangian meshes, they utilize an updated Lagrangian discretization and use the Eulerian grid degrees of freedom to take variations of the potential energy. It often coarsens the degrees of freedom of the Lagrangian mesh and can lead to artifacts. We develop a hybrid approach that retains Lagrangian degrees of freedom while still allowing for natural coupling with other materials simulated with traditional MPM, e.g., sand, snow, etc. Furthermore, while recent MPM advances allow for resolution of frictional contact with codimensional simulation of hyperelasticity, they do not generalize to the case of volumetric materials. We show that our hybrid approach resolves these issues. We demonstrate the efficacy of our technique with examples that involve elastic soft tissues coupled with kinematic skeletons, extreme deformation, and coupling with various elastoplastic materials. Our approach also naturally allows for two-way rigid body coupling.