"Uniformed medical students and residents" refers to medical school enrollees and physicians in training who are obligated to serve in the military after graduation or training completion. This is in exchange for 2 forms of financial support that are provided by the military for individuals interested in pursuing a career in medicine. These programs are offered namely through the Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences (USUHS) and the Health Professions Scholarship Program (HPSP). Uniformed medical school graduates can choose to serve with the military upon graduation or to pursue residency training. Residency can be completed at in-service programs at military treatment facilities, at out-service programs, at civilian residency training programs, or via deferment programs for residency training at civilian programs. Once their residency training is completed, military physicians should then complete their service obligation. As such, both USUHS and HPSP students should attend a basic officer training to ensure their preparedness for military service. In this article, we elaborate more on the mission, requirements, application, and benefits of both USUHS and HPSP. Moreover, we expand on the officer preparedness training, postgraduate education in the military, unique opportunities of military medicine, and life after completion of military obligation.