Translating our knowledge of the biological aging from animal models to humans may give rise to novel approaches of targeting multiple aging-related diseases simultaneously and increasing health span. Here, for the first time, we use transcriptomic signatures of monocytes to identify biological aging pathways underlying multiple aging-related diseases in humans. The ordinal logistic regression was used to cross-sectionally investigate transcriptomics of the comorbidity index in 1264 community-based Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) adults, 47% Caucasian, 32% Hispanic, 21% African American, and 51% female, aged 55-94 years. The comorbidity index was defined as the number of prevalent aging-related diseases including cardiovascular disease, type-2 diabetes, hypertension, cancer, dementia, chronic kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and hip fracture. We identified 708 gene transcripts associated with the comorbidity index (FDR < 0.05) after adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, and study site. In a weighted gene co-expression network analysis, as postulated, aging-related declines in apoptosis/autophagy (OR = 1.21 per SD increment, p = 0.0006) and ribosome/mitochondrion (OR = 0.90 per SD increment, p = 0.05) were positively associated with the comorbidity index. After adjusting for multiple comparisons, we identified 10 comorbidity-associated modules (FDR < 0.05), including the module of apoptosis/autophagy. There were three inter-correlated modules of these 10 involved in the complement subcomponent C1q, Fc gamma receptor I, and Fc gamma receptor III of the immune system, respectively. Aging-related upregulation of these three modules was positively associated with the comorbidity index. The odds of comorbidity increased with more of these modules acting together in a dose-response fashion. In conclusion, transcriptomic analysis of human immune cells may identify biomarker panels indicative of comprehensive biological mechanisms, especially immune signaling pathways, contributing to health aging.