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The Center for the Study of Child Care Employment focuses on issues relating to the nearly half a million teachers currently employed in some 115,000 regulated child care centers and the estimated 1.8 million workers, including paid relatives, who care for children in home-based settings in the United States. Through its research, policy analysis and development, its aims to improve child care jobs and services.

Cover page of California Early Care and Education Workforce Study: Licensed Child Care Centers, Los Angeles County 2006

California Early Care and Education Workforce Study: Licensed Child Care Centers, Los Angeles County 2006

(2021)

This report is intended to identify the characteristics of Los Angeles County’s current center-based early care and education workforce, both in light of proposed new requirements, and to help assess the size of the task of training the next generation of workers to care for young children.

Cover page of The Consequences of Invisibility: COVID-19 and the Human Toll on California Early Educators

The Consequences of Invisibility: COVID-19 and the Human Toll on California Early Educators

(2021)

As California policymakers start to chart a path forward beyond COVID-19, it is important to first understand and reckon with the pandemic’s impact on child care programs and individual educators. This research paper presents findings from a survey of 953 California ECE programs and providers in June-July 2020. The results provide an in-depth view of the past year’s devastation and highlight the unseen costs of operating a child care program throughout the pandemic with little-to-no support.  Survey responses paint a grim picture of early educators fearing for their own health and the health of their families, of providers taking on personal credit card debt to cover program expenses, and a constant scramble to both find and afford essential cleaning supplies in order to meet new health and safety regulations. The key findings from this study should inform the strategic, equitable, and urgent allocation of American Rescue Plan Act stabilization funds in California over the coming months.

This research paper is part of the California ECE COVID-19 Impact Study and expands upon an initial data snapshot released in July 2020.

Cover page of The Consequences of Invisibility: COVID-19 and the Human Toll on California Early Educators

The Consequences of Invisibility: COVID-19 and the Human Toll on California Early Educators

(2021)

As California policymakers start to chart a path forward beyond COVID-19, it is important to first understand and reckon with the pandemic’s impact on child care programs and individual educators. This research paper presents findings from a survey of 953 California ECE programs and providers in June-July 2020. The results provide an in-depth view of the past year’s devastation and highlight the unseen costs of operating a child care program throughout the pandemic with little-to-no support.  Survey responses paint a grim picture of early educators fearing for their own health and the health of their families, of providers taking on personal credit card debt to cover program expenses, and a constant scramble to both find and afford essential cleaning supplies in order to meet new health and safety regulations. The key findings from this study should inform the strategic, equitable, and urgent allocation of American Rescue Plan Act stabilization funds in California over the coming months.

This research paper is part of the California ECE COVID-19 Impact Study and expands upon an initial data snapshot released in July 2020.

Cover page of Anna Evans Murray: Visionary Leadership in Public Kindergartens and Teacher Training

Anna Evans Murray: Visionary Leadership in Public Kindergartens and Teacher Training

(2021)

Anna Evans Murray (1857-1955) was a racial justice activist, day nursery and kindergarten advocate, and educator whose contributions to advance public kindergarten focused on Washington, D.C. (Smith, 1996). In the national public kindergarten movement, the District of Columbia was one of the shining examples of successful efforts to secure public funding. The $12,000 allocation for the district’s public kindergartens approved by Congress with the 1898-1899 appropriations act is repeatedly mentioned in an early report detailing highlights from the city (Association for Childhood Education International, 1939). However, the process to secure public funding, the role of Black women’s leadership, and the national Black women’s movement undergirding these efforts was not noted by the Association of Childhood Education International (ACEI). Although earlier histories attribute the congressional appropriations to White women (Vandewalker, 1908), more recent and influential works credit Anna Murray for her leadership (Beatty, 1995; Allen, 2017).

In this profile, we take a deeper dive into Murray’s trajectory as a public kindergarten advocate in the context of early childhood education’s broader history. Anna Murray’s story not only demonstrates the importance of public funding for early learning’s sustainability and growth, but also underscores the challenges of providing training for Black teachers. As Black kindergarten advocate Haydee B. Campbell saw in St. Louis, early public kindergartens in Washington, D.C., were denied, delayed, or segregated for Black children. Murray’s advocacy of public kindergartens for Black children also included a crucial parallel strategy to train Black kindergarten educators.

Cover page of Haydee B. Campbell: Expanding Education for Black Children and Opportunities for Black Women

Haydee B. Campbell: Expanding Education for Black Children and Opportunities for Black Women

(2021)

In the late 1800s, the groundbreaking yet segregated public kindergartens of St. Louis, Missouri, included separate leadership and teacher training for Black women, with Haydee B. Campbell as the Superintendent of Black Kindergartens in St. Louis. While the history of early education in the city often focuses on well-known White leaders like Susan Blow and William Torrey Harris, the contributions of Black women have been erased and ignored for too long. By turning the spotlight on Haydee B. Campbell, we make visible not only Black women’s leadership as teachers, trainers, and pedagogical leaders, but the contributions of Black women’s clubs to the kindergarten movement in which Campbell worked as the supervisor of the National Association of Colored Women’s Clubs (NACWC) Kindergarten Department. Centering Campbell provides a different view of history, where a win for public kindergartens meant incorporation into racially segregated school systems, often with disparate access by race (fewer Black kindergartens than White), disparate funding (less funding allocated to Black kindergartens), and segregated training schools for Black teachers (fewer locations where Black women could be trained).

One consequence of devaluing Black women’s contribution to the kindergarten movement is their scant presence in the archives. We are only beginning our work of searching for the historical “dots” we hope to connect into a more fully developed understanding of the kindergarten movement from marginalized perspectives. This profile pulls together the fragmentary information we have on Haydee B. Campbell’s career in the context of a city considered “the sun of our kindergarten system,” her contributions to the kindergarten movement, and her role within the NACWC’s national efforts to establish kindergartens for Black children.

Cover page of Early Childhood Workforce Index 2020

Early Childhood Workforce Index 2020

(2021)

The Early Childhood Workforce Index provides a state-by-state look at policies and conditions affecting the early care and education workforce. This biennial report has tracked state progress since 2016.

This third, 2020 edition of the Index continues to track state policies in essential areas like workforce qualifications, work environments, and compensation. The report provides updated policy recommendations and spotlights state responses to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Cover page of Marin County Center-Based Early Care & Education Workforce Study 2019

Marin County Center-Based Early Care & Education Workforce Study 2019

(2020)

This report examines the demographic, educational, and employment characteristics (including compensation and benefits) of staff employed in center-based ECE programs throughout Marin County. The findings bring attention to the low wages and economic insecurity of the ECE workforce, particularly against a backdrop of one of the highest costs of living in the country. Key findings include high churn of teaching staff and a diverse workforce stratified by job role. The data were also examined by program type, participation in QRIS, and funding source.

This report is an extension of the SEQUAL Marin County study, Teachers’ Voices: Work Environment Conditions That Impact Teacher Practice and Program Quality – Marin County.

Cover page of Racial Wage Gaps in Early Education Employment

Racial Wage Gaps in Early Education Employment

(2019)

The current early education system is built on racial inequities.

Racial wage gaps and limitations to professional opportunities exist for women of color across occupations. Regardless of their job or field, women of color experience the greatest wage gaps when compared to white, non- Hispanic men (Hegewisch, Phil, & Hartmann, 2019). These structural inequities impact not only their immediate circumstances, but establish economic inequalities that follow them into retirement (Hogan & Perrucci, 2007).

The historical and pervasive undervaluing of labor performed by women and minorities in the United States has combined to create one of the most underpaid workforces in the country: those who care for and teach young children. The early care and education (ECE) sector is comprised almost exclusively of women, 40 percent of whom are people of color. These educators represent the most racially diverse sector of the teaching workforce, compared to K-12 and postsecondary education in which nearly three-quarters of educators are white (Taie & Goldring, 2017; NCES, n.d.; Myers, 2016). Early educators are among the lowest-paid workers in every state (Whitebook, McLean, Austin, & Edwards, 2018), which creates especially compromised circumstances for African American and Hispanic women in this profession.

Cover page of Teachers’ Voices: Work Environment Conditions That Impact Teacher Practice and Program Quality – Marin County

Teachers’ Voices: Work Environment Conditions That Impact Teacher Practice and Program Quality – Marin County

(2019)

This SEQUAL report examines work environment conditions that impact teacher practice and well-being across center based programs in Marin County, California across the five SEQUAL domains:  Teaching Supports, Learning Community, Job Crafting, and Adult Well-Being. Findings reveal both workplace supports and challenges that influence early child care educator practice, well-being and effectiveness in the classroom. Marin County is one of the wealthiest counties in the nation and early educators often struggle financially due to low compensation, making it even more important to require supportive working conditions and policies to support their practice and well-being. The findings also demonstrate the value of program policies that ensure dependable workplace supports and policies such as provisions for paid planning and reporting time.

This report is part of our Teachers’ Voices (SEQUAL) series. To facilitate bringing teachers’ voices into quality improvement strategies, the Center for the Study of Child Care Employment (CSCCE) developed Supportive Environmental Quality Underlying Adult Learning, or SEQUAL, as a tool to document teaching staff perspectives about workplace conditions that impact their practice and program quality. SEQUAL can be used as a research, educational, or technical assistance tool.

Cover page of Strengthening the Knowledge, Skills, and Professional Identity of Early Educators: The Impact of the California SEIU Early Educator Apprenticeship Program

Strengthening the Knowledge, Skills, and Professional Identity of Early Educators: The Impact of the California SEIU Early Educator Apprenticeship Program

(2019)

Ensuring that early educators have the skills, knowledge, and experiences necessary to implement effective practices and the access to education that provides wage improvement remains critical. Quality improvement leaders and policymakers have increasingly considered alternative instructional and training models to deliver education, including the apprenticeship model, which is gaining favor with many in the early care and education field. This model combines classroom-based learning and on-the-job training to provide the knowledge and skills early educators need in order to implement effective practices in their early education roles. 

In 2019, the Center for the Study of Child Care Employment (CSCCE) conducted an evaluation of the SEIU Early Educator Apprenticeship Programs. This evaluation adds to the growing body of evidence that apprenticeship programs present a promising approach to improving the knowledge, skills, and professional identity of early educators. Apprentices who participated in this evaluation benefited from the strategies employed by the apprenticeship programs to remove barriers and support success, and these apprentices reported gains in their knowledge and enhancements to their practices with children and families. The report offers recommendations for future iterations of apprenticeship and on-the-job training programs. 

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