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Statistical mechanics of transport processes in active fluids. II. Equations of hydrodynamics for active Brownian particles

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We perform a coarse-graining analysis of the paradigmatic active matter model, active Brownian particles, yielding a continuum description in terms of balance laws for mass, linear and angular momentum, and energy. The derivation of the balance of linear momentum reveals that the active force manifests itself directly as a continuum-level body force proportional to an order parameter-like director field, which therefore requires its own evolution equation to complete the continuum description of the system. We derive this equation, demonstrating in the process that bulk currents may be sustained in homogeneous systems only in the presence of interparticle aligning interactions. Furthermore, we perform a second coarse-graining of the balance of linear momentum and derive the expression for active or swim pressure in the case of mechanical equilibrium.

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