Phase Noise in MIMO Systems: Bayesian Cramer-Rao Bounds and Soft-Input Estimation
This paper addresses the problem of estimating time varying phase noise caused by imperfect oscillators in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems. The estimation problem is parameterized in detail and based on an equivalent signal model its dimensionality is reduced to minimize the overhead associated with phase noise estimation. New exact and closed-form expressions for the Bayesian Cramér-Rao lower bounds (BCRLBs) and soft-input maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimators for online, i.e., filtering, and offline, i.e., smoothing, estimation of phase noise over the length of a frame are derived. Simulations demonstrate that the proposed MAP estimators' mean-square error (MSE) performances are very close to the derived BCRLBs at moderate-to-high signal-to-noise ratios. To reduce the overhead and complexity associated with tracking the phase noise processes over the length of a frame, a novel soft-input extended Kalman filter (EKF) and extended Kalman smoother (EKS) that use soft statistics of the transmitted symbols given the current observations are proposed. Numerical results indicate that by employing the proposed phase tracking approach, the bit-error rate performance of a MIMO system affected by phase noise can be significantly improved. In addition, simulation results indicate that the proposed phase noise estimation scheme allows for application of higher order modulations and larger numbers of antennas in MIMO systems that employ imperfect oscillators.