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Observation of time-reversal violation in the B0 meson system.

  • Author(s): Lees, JP;
  • Poireau, V;
  • Tisserand, V;
  • Garra Tico, J;
  • Grauges, E;
  • Palano, A;
  • Eigen, G;
  • Stugu, B;
  • Brown, DN;
  • Kerth, LT;
  • Kolomensky, Yu G;
  • Lynch, G;
  • Koch, H;
  • Schroeder, T;
  • Asgeirsson, DJ;
  • Hearty, C;
  • Mattison, TS;
  • McKenna, JA;
  • So, RY;
  • Khan, A;
  • Blinov, VE;
  • Buzykaev, AR;
  • Druzhinin, VP;
  • Golubev, VB;
  • Kravchenko, EA;
  • Onuchin, AP;
  • Serednyakov, SI;
  • Skovpen, Yu I;
  • Solodov, EP;
  • Todyshev, K Yu;
  • Yushkov, AN;
  • Bondioli, M;
  • Kirkby, D;
  • Lankford, AJ;
  • Mandelkern, M;
  • Atmacan, H;
  • Gary, JW;
  • Liu, F;
  • Long, O;
  • Vitug, GM;
  • Campagnari, C;
  • Hong, TM;
  • Kovalskyi, D;
  • Richman, JD;
  • West, CA;
  • Eisner, AM;
  • Kroseberg, J;
  • Lockman, WS;
  • Martinez, AJ;
  • Schumm, BA;
  • Seiden, A;
  • Chao, DS;
  • Cheng, CH;
  • Echenard, B;
  • Flood, KT;
  • Hitlin, DG;
  • Ongmongkolkul, P;
  • Porter, FC;
  • Rakitin, AY;
  • Andreassen, R;
  • Huard, Z;
  • Meadows, BT;
  • Sokoloff, MD;
  • Sun, L;
  • Bloom, PC;
  • Ford, WT;
  • Gaz, A;
  • Nauenberg, U;
  • Smith, JG;
  • Wagner, SR;
  • Ayad, R;
  • Toki, WH;
  • Spaan, B;
  • Schubert, KR;
  • Schwierz, R;
  • Bernard, D;
  • Verderi, M;
  • Clark, PJ;
  • Playfer, S;
  • Bettoni, D;
  • Bozzi, C;
  • Calabrese, R;
  • Cibinetto, G;
  • Fioravanti, E;
  • Garzia, I;
  • Luppi, E;
  • Munerato, M;
  • Piemontese, L;
  • Santoro, V;
  • Baldini-Ferroli, R;
  • Calcaterra, A;
  • de Sangro, R;
  • Finocchiaro, G;
  • Patteri, P;
  • Peruzzi, IM;
  • Piccolo, M;
  • Rama, M;
  • Zallo, A;
  • Contri, R;
  • Guido, E;
  • Lo Vetere, M;
  • Monge, MR;
  • Passaggio, S;
  • Patrignani, C;
  • Robutti, E;
  • Bhuyan, B;
  • Prasad, V;
  • Lee, CL;
  • Morii, M;
  • Edwards, AJ;
  • Adametz, A;
  • Uwer, U;
  • Lacker, HM;
  • Lueck, T;
  • Dauncey, PD;
  • Mallik, U;
  • Chen, C;
  • Cochran, J;
  • Meyer, WT;
  • Prell, S;
  • Rubin, AE;
  • Gritsan, AV;
  • Guo, ZJ;
  • Arnaud, N;
  • Davier, M;
  • Derkach, D;
  • Grosdidier, G;
  • Le Diberder, F;
  • Lutz, AM;
  • Malaescu, B;
  • Roudeau, P;
  • Schune, MH;
  • Stocchi, A;
  • Wormser, G;
  • Lange, DJ;
  • Wright, DM;
  • Chavez, CA;
  • Coleman, JP;
  • Fry, JR;
  • Gabathuler, E;
  • Hutchcroft, DE;
  • Payne, DJ;
  • Touramanis, C;
  • Bevan, AJ;
  • Di Lodovico, F;
  • Sacco, R;
  • Sigamani, M;
  • Cowan, G;
  • Brown, DN;
  • Davis, CL;
  • Denig, AG;
  • Fritsch, M;
  • Gradl, W;
  • Griessinger, K;
  • Hafner, A;
  • Prencipe, E;
  • Barlow, RJ;
  • Jackson, G;
  • Lafferty, GD;
  • Behn, E;
  • Cenci, R;
  • Hamilton, B;
  • Jawahery, A;
  • Roberts, DA;
  • Dallapiccola, C;
  • Cowan, R;
  • Dujmic, D;
  • Sciolla, G;
  • Cheaib, R;
  • Lindemann, D;
  • Patel, PM;
  • Robertson, SH;
  • Biassoni, P;
  • Neri, N;
  • Palombo, F;
  • Stracka, S;
  • Cremaldi, L;
  • Godang, R;
  • Kroeger, R;
  • Sonnek, P;
  • Summers, DJ;
  • Nguyen, X;
  • Simard, M;
  • Taras, P;
  • De Nardo, G;
  • Monorchio, D;
  • Onorato, G;
  • Sciacca, C;
  • Martinelli, M;
  • Raven, G;
  • Jessop, CP;
  • Losecco, JM;
  • Wang, WF;
  • Honscheid, K;
  • Kass, R;
  • Brau, J;
  • Frey, R;
  • Sinev, NB;
  • Strom, D;
  • Torrence, E;
  • Feltresi, E;
  • Gagliardi, N;
  • Margoni, M;
  • Morandin, M;
  • Pompili, A;
  • Posocco, M;
  • Rotondo, M;
  • Simi, G;
  • Simonetto, F;
  • Stroili, R;
  • Akar, S;
  • Ben-Haim, E;
  • Bomben, M;
  • Bonneaud, GR;
  • Briand, H;
  • Calderini, G;
  • Chauveau, J;
  • Hamon, O;
  • Leruste, Ph;
  • Marchiori, G;
  • Ocariz, J;
  • Sitt, S;
  • Biasini, M;
  • Manoni, E;
  • Pacetti, S;
  • Rossi, A;
  • Angelini, C;
  • Batignani, G;
  • Bettarini, S;
  • Carpinelli, M;
  • Casarosa, G;
  • Cervelli, A;
  • Forti, F;
  • Giorgi, MA;
  • Lusiani, A;
  • Oberhof, B;
  • Paoloni, E;
  • Perez, A;
  • Rizzo, G;
  • Walsh, JJ;
  • Lopes Pegna, D;
  • Olsen, J;
  • Smith, AJS;
  • Telnov, AV;
  • Anulli, F;
  • Faccini, R;
  • Ferrarotto, F;
  • Ferroni, F;
  • Gaspero, M;
  • Li Gioi, L;
  • Mazzoni, MA;
  • Piredda, G;
  • Bünger, C;
  • Grünberg, O;
  • Hartmann, T;
  • Leddig, T;
  • Schröder, H;
  • Voss, C;
  • Waldi, R;
  • Adye, T;
  • Olaiya, EO;
  • Wilson, FF;
  • Emery, S;
  • Hamel de Monchenault, G;
  • Vasseur, G;
  • Yèche, Ch;
  • Aston, D;
  • Bard, DJ;
  • Bartoldus, R;
  • Benitez, JF;
  • Cartaro, C;
  • Convery, MR;
  • Dorfan, J;
  • Dubois-Felsmann, GP;
  • Dunwoodie, W;
  • Ebert, M;
  • Field, RC;
  • Franco Sevilla, M;
  • Fulsom, BG;
  • Gabareen, AM;
  • Graham, MT;
  • Grenier, P;
  • Hast, C;
  • Innes, WR;
  • Kelsey, MH;
  • Kim, P;
  • Kocian, ML;
  • Leith, DWGS;
  • Lewis, P;
  • Lindquist, B;
  • Luitz, S;
  • Luth, V;
  • Lynch, HL;
  • MacFarlane, DB;
  • Muller, DR;
  • Neal, H;
  • Nelson, S;
  • Perl, M;
  • Pulliam, T;
  • Ratcliff, BN;
  • Roodman, A;
  • Salnikov, AA;
  • Schindler, RH;
  • Snyder, A;
  • Su, D;
  • Sullivan, MK;
  • Va'vra, J;
  • Wagner, AP;
  • Wisniewski, WJ;
  • Wittgen, M;
  • Wright, DH;
  • Wulsin, HW;
  • Young, CC;
  • Ziegler, V;
  • Park, W;
  • Purohit, MV;
  • White, RM;
  • Wilson, JR;
  • Randle-Conde, A;
  • Sekula, SJ;
  • Bellis, M;
  • Burchat, PR;
  • Miyashita, TS;
  • Puccio, EMT;
  • Alam, MS;
  • Ernst, JA;
  • Gorodeisky, R;
  • Guttman, N;
  • Peimer, DR;
  • Soffer, A;
  • Lund, P;
  • Spanier, SM;
  • Ritchie, JL;
  • Ruland, AM;
  • Schwitters, RF;
  • Wray, BC;
  • Izen, JM;
  • Lou, XC;
  • Bianchi, F;
  • Gamba, D;
  • Zambito, S;
  • Lanceri, L;
  • Vitale, L;
  • Bernabeu, J;
  • Martinez-Vidal, F;
  • Oyanguren, A;
  • Villanueva-Perez, P;
  • Ahmed, H;
  • Albert, J;
  • Banerjee, Sw;
  • Bernlochner, FU;
  • Choi, HHF;
  • King, GJ;
  • Kowalewski, R;
  • Lewczuk, MJ;
  • Nugent, IM;
  • Roney, JM;
  • Sobie, RJ;
  • Tasneem, N;
  • Gershon, TJ;
  • Harrison, PF;
  • Latham, TE;
  • Band, HR;
  • Dasu, S;
  • Pan, Y;
  • Prepost, R;
  • Wu, SL;
  • BABAR Collaboration
  • et al.
Abstract

Although CP violation in the B meson system has been well established by the B factories, there has been no direct observation of time-reversal violation. The decays of entangled neutral B mesons into definite flavor states (B(0) or B(0)), and J/ψK(L)(0) or ccK(S)(0) final states (referred to as B(+) or B(-)), allow comparisons between the probabilities of four pairs of T-conjugated transitions, for example, B(0) → B(-) and B(-) → B(0), as a function of the time difference between the two B decays. Using 468 × 10(6) BB pairs produced in Υ(4S) decays collected by the BABAR detector at SLAC, we measure T-violating parameters in the time evolution of neutral B mesons, yielding ΔS(T)(+) = -1.37 ± 0.14(stat) ± 0.06(syst) and ΔS(T)(-) = 1.17 ± 0.18(stat) ± 0.11(syst). These nonzero results represent the first direct observation of T violation through the exchange of initial and final states in transitions that can only be connected by a T-symmetry transformation.

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