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Periodontal disease in HIV/AIDS.

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Since the early 1990's, the death rate from AIDS among adults has declined in most developed countries, largely because of newer antiretroviral therapies and improved access to these therapies. In addition, from 2006 to 2011, the total number of new cases of HIV infection worldwide has declined somewhat and has remained relatively constant. Nevertheless, because of the large numbers of existing and new cases of HIV infection, the dental practitioner and other healthcare practitioners will still be required to treat oral and periodontal conditions unique to HIV/AIDS as well as conventional periodontal diseases in HIV-infected adults and children. The oral and periodontal conditions most closely associated with HIV infection include oral candidiasis, oral hairy leukoplakia, Kaposi's sarcoma, salivary gland diseases, oral warts, other oral viral infections, linear gingival erythema and necrotizing gingival and periodontal diseases. While the incidence and prevalence of these oral lesions and conditions appear to be declining, in part because of antiretroviral therapy, dental and healthcare practitioners will need to continue to diagnose and treat the more conventional periodontal diseases in these HIV-infected populations. Finding low-cost and easily accessible and acceptable diagnostic and treatment approaches for both the microbiological and the inflammatory aspects of periodontal diseases in these populations are of particular importance, as the systemic spread of the local microbiota and inflammatory products of periodontal diseases may have adverse effects on both the progression of HIV infection and the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy approaches. Developing and assessing low-cost and accessible diagnostic and treatment approaches to periodontal diseases, particularly in developing countries, will require an internationally coordinated effort to design and conduct standardized clinical trials.

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