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Quantification of Anionic Redox Chemistry in a Prototype Na-Rich Layered Oxide.


Harnessing anionic redox reactions is of prime importance for boosting the capacity of sodium-ion batteries (NIBs). However, quantifying the cyclability of anionic redox reactions is still challenging. Herein, we conduct a qualitative and quantitative investigation of the cationic and anionic redox reactions of a prototype Na-rich layered oxide, namely, Na3RuO4, by a combination of bulk-sensitive X-ray absorption spectroscopy and full-range mapping of resonant inelastic X-ray scattering. We unequivocally reveal that both Ru cations and oxygen anions are involved in the charge compensation process of Na3RuO4. Ru redox is highly reversible over extended electrochemical cycles, while the cyclability of lattice oxygen redox gradually decreases with the retention of only 36% after 30 cycles, which is mainly responsible for the capacity fading of Na3RuO4. Our findings provide deeper insights into the complex oxygen redox mechanism, which plays a decisive role for designing high-energy Na-rich electrode materials for NIBs.

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