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Use of Antihypertensive Agents and Association With Risk of Adverse Outcomes in Chronic Kidney Disease: Focus on Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Angiotensin Receptor Blockers.


Background Our objective was to determine patterns of antihypertensive agent use by stage of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and to evaluate the association between different classes of antihypertensive agents with nonrenal outcomes, especially in advanced CKD . Methods and Results We studied 3939 participants of the CRIC (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort) study. Predictors were time-dependent angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker , β-blocker, and calcium channel blocker use (versus nonuse of agents in each class). Outcomes were adjudicated heart failure events or death. Adjusted Cox models were used to determine the association between predictors and outcomes. We also examined whether the associations differed based on the severity of CKD (early [stage 2-3 CKD ] versus advanced disease [stage 4-5 CKD ]). During median follow-up of 7.5 years, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitor use plateaued during CKD stage 3 (75%) and declined to 37% by stage 5, while β-blocker, calcium channel blocker, and diuretic use increased steadily with advancing CKD . Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitor use was associated with lower risk of heart failure (hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.67-0.97) and death (hazard ratio, 0.78; 95% confidence interval, 0.67-0.90), regardless of severity of CKD . Calcium channel blocker use was not associated with risk of heart failure or death, regardless of the severity of CKD . β-Blocker use was associated with higher risk of heart failure (hazard ratio, 1.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.29-2.04) and death (hazard ratio, 1.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.43), especially during early CKD ( P<0.05 for interaction). Conclusions Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and angiotensin receptor blocker use decreased, while use of other agents increased with advancing CKD . Use of agents besides angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers may be associated with suboptimal outcomes in patients with CKD .

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