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Preliminary report of postoperative complications of phacoemulsification in Pugs: A multicenter retrospective study of 32 cases.

  • Author(s): Boss, Christine;
  • La Croix, Noelle;
  • Moore, Phillip A;
  • Wilkie, David A;
  • Maggio, Federica;
  • Wiggans, Kenneth Tomo;
  • Maggs, David J;
  • Kaiser, Kevin;
  • Sapienza, John S;
  • Kim, Kay;
  • Strauss, Rachel;
  • van der Woerdt, Alexandra;
  • Schmidt, Gretchen
  • et al.

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To compare complication rates and visual outcomes following phacoemulsification in Pugs versus dogs of other breeds.

Animals studied

Thirty-two pure-bred Pugs (55 eyes) and 32 dogs of other breeds (56 eyes) undergoing phacoemulsification.


Multi-institutional retrospective medical record review of perioperative factors, postoperative complications, and visual outcomes. The reference population of dogs of varying breeds included surgical cases following each Pug case at the same institutions. Perioperative risk factors and postoperative complication rates were compared between the two populations.


Pigmentary keratitis and diabetes mellitus were the most common preoperative comorbidities, found in 75% (P < .001) and 72% (P = .12) of Pugs, respectively. No perioperative factors were significantly associated with postoperative complications in Pugs. Postoperative complication rates were similar between groups; however, the most common complication in Pugs was corneal ulceration (15% of operated eyes), whereas glaucoma was most common in the reference population (13% of operated eyes). Three months postoperatively, vision was preserved in 91% of eyes of Pugs (50/55) and 95% of the reference population (53/56). One year postoperatively, 80% (32/40) of Pug eyes and 82% (28/34) of eyes in the reference population remained sighted.


Comorbidities and complications of cataract surgery in Pugs of this study demonstrate a predisposition for corneal disease. This highlights the importance of preoperative evaluation of factors associated with PK and corneal clarity, and postoperative monitoring for corneal ulceration in this breed.

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