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Open Access Publications from the University of California

Differential regulation of the two ferrochelatase paralogues in Shewanella loihica PV-4 in response to environmental stresses

  • Author(s): Qiu, D
  • Xie, M
  • Dai, J
  • An, W
  • Wei, H
  • Tian, C
  • Kempher, ML
  • Zhou, A
  • He, Z
  • Gu, B
  • Zhou, J
  • et al.

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© 2016, American Society for Microbiology. Determining the function and regulation of paralogues is important in understanding microbial functional genomics and environmental adaptation. Heme homeostasis is crucial for the survival of environmental microorganisms. Most Shewanella species encode two paralogues of ferrochelatase, the terminal enzyme in the heme biosynthesis pathway. The function and transcriptional regulation of two ferrochelatase genes, hemH1 and hemH2, were investigated in Shewanella loihica PV-4. The disruption of hemH1 but not hemH2 resulted in a significant accumulation of extracellular protoporphyrin IX (PPIX), the precursor to heme, and decreased intracellular heme levels. hemH1 was constitutively expressed, and the expression of hemH2 increased when hemH1 was disrupted. The transcription of hemH1 was regulated by the housekeeping sigma factor RpoD and potentially regulated by OxyR, while hemH2 appeared to be regulated by the oxidative stress-associated sigma factor RpoE2. When an oxidative stress condition was mimicked by adding H2O2to the medium or exposing the culture to light, PPIX accumulation was suppressed in the ΔhemH1 mutant. Consistently, transcriptome analysis indicated enhanced iron uptake and suppressed heme synthesis in the ΔhemH1 mutant. These data indicate that the two paralogues are functional in the heme synthesis pathway but regulated by environmental conditions, providing insights into the understanding of bacterial response to environmental stresses and a great potential to commercially produce porphyrin compounds.

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