Driving Distance and Patient-Reported Outcomes in Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Survivors
Published Web Locationhttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.08.002
Long driving distances to transplantation centers may impede access to care for hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) survivors. As a secondary analysis from the multicenter INSPIRE study (NCT01602211), we examined baseline data from relapse-free HCT adult survivors (2 to 10 years after allogeneic or autologous HCT) to investigate the association between driving distances and patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures of distress and physical function. We analyzed predictors of elevated distress and impaired physical function using logistic regression models that operationalized driving distance first as a continuous variable and separately as a dichotomous variable (<100 versus 100+ miles). Of 1136 patients available for analysis from 6 US centers, median driving distance was 82 miles and 44% resided 100+ miles away from their HCT centers. Elevated distress was reported by 32% of patients, impaired physical function by 19%, and both by 12%. Driving distance, whether operationalized as a continuous or dichotomous variable, had no impact on distress or physical function in linear regression modeling (95% confidence interval, 1.00 to 1.00, for both PROs with driving distance as a continuous variable). In contrast, chronic graft-versus-host-disease, lower income, and lack of Internet access independently predicted both elevated distress and impaired physical function. In summary, we found no impact of driving distance on distress and physical function among HCT survivors. Our results have implications for how long-term follow-up care is delivered after HCT, with regard to the negligible impact of driving distances on PROs and also the risk of a "digital divide" worsening outcomes among HCT survivors without Internet access.