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Oxypurinol pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in healthy volunteers: Influence of BCRP Q141K polymorphism and patient characteristics.

  • Author(s): Vora, Bianca
  • Brackman, Deanna J
  • Zou, Ling
  • Garcia-Cremades, Maria
  • Sirota, Marina
  • Savic, Radojka M
  • Giacomini, Kathleen M
  • et al.

Published Web Location

https://doi.org/10.1111/cts.12992
Abstract

The missense variant, breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) p.Q141K, which encodes a reduced function BCRP, has been linked to poor response to allopurinol. Using a multifaceted approach, we aimed to characterize the relationship(s) between BCRP p.Q141K, the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of oxypurinol (the active metabolite of allopurinol), and serum uric acid (SUA) levels. A prospective clinical study (NCT02956278) was conducted in which healthy volunteers were given a single oral dose of 300 mg allopurinol followed by intensive blood sampling. Data were analyzed using noncompartmental analysis and population PK/PD modeling. Additionally, electronic health records were analyzed to investigate whether clinical inhibitors of BCRP phenocopied the effects of the p.Q141K variant with respect to SUA. Subjects homozygous for p.Q141K had a longer half-life (34.2 ± 12.2 h vs. 19.1 ± 1.42 h) of oxypurinol. The PK/PD model showed that women had a 24.8% lower volume of distribution. Baseline SUA was affected by p.Q141K genotype and renal function; that is, it changed by 48.8% for every 1 mg/dl difference in serum creatinine. Real-world data analyses showed that patients prescribed clinical inhibitors of BCRP have higher SUA levels than those that have not been prescribed inhibitors of BCRP, consistent with the idea that BCRP inhibitors phenocopy the effects of p.Q141K on uric acid levels. This study identified important covariates of oxypurinol PK/PD that could affect its efficacy for the treatment of gout as well as a potential side effect of BCRP inhibitors on increasing uric acid levels, which has not been described previously.

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