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Joint effects of genetic variants and residential proximity to pesticide applications on hypospadias risk



We examined risks associated with joint exposure of gene variants and pesticides.


Analyses included 189 cases and 390 male controls born from 1991 to 2003 in California's San Joaquin Valley. We used logistic regression to examine risks associated with joint exposures of gene variants and pesticides that our previous work identified as associated with hypospadias. Genetic variables were based on variants in DGKK, genes involved in sex steroid synthesis/metabolism, and genes involved in genital tubercle development. Pesticide exposure was based on residential proximity to commercial agricultural pesticide applications.


Odds ratios (ORs) were highest among babies with joint exposures, who had two- to fourfold increased risks; for example, the OR was 3.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.8-16.5) among subjects with the risk-associated DGKK haplotype and pesticide exposure; OR, 1.5 (95% CI, 0.7-3.1) among subjects with the haplotype and no pesticide exposure; and OR, 0.9 (95% CI, 0.5-1.6) among subjects without the haplotype but with pesticide exposure, relative to subjects with neither. However, results did not provide statistical evidence that these risks were significantly greater than expected on an additive scale, relative to risks associated with one exposure at a time.


We observed elevated risks associated with joint exposures to selected pesticides and genetic variants but no statistical evidence for interaction. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 106:653-658, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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