The Punjabi Pioneer Experience in America: Recognition or Denial?
This article reviews the experience of Punjabi pioneers in California with particular refcicncc to Punjabi-Mexican families of the early $Cttlcrs. It lfillCS Chat their history confinns the fiexibllity of etmic identity and culture, and helps to displace the old anthropological concept of 'culture' martbing in bounded units throueh time and space. The Punjabi pioneers to America in the early twentieth century encountered more constraints than opportunities whelfthey nUiflted. but they cteated a complex ud lntel'C$ling history which deserves f uU re.cognition, one from which both scholnrs and more recent Punjabi immigrants have much to learn.