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Unraveling the Role of Allo-Antibodies and Transplant Injury.

  • Author(s): Matsuda, Yoshiko
  • Sarwal, Minnie M
  • et al.
Abstract

Alloimmunity driving rejection in the context of solid organ transplantation can be grossly divided into mechanisms predominantly driven by either T cell-mediated rejection (TCMR) and antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR), though the co-existence of both types of rejections can be seen in a variable number of sampled grafts. Acute TCMR can generally be well controlled by the establishment of effective immunosuppression (1, 2). Acute ABMR is a low frequency finding in the current era of blood group and HLA donor/recipient matching and the avoidance of engraftment in the context of high-titer, preformed donor-specific antibodies. However, chronic ABMR remains a major complication resulting in the untimely loss of transplanted organs (3-10). The close relationship between donor-specific antibodies and ABMR has been revealed by the highly sensitive detection of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies (7, 11-15). Injury to transplanted organs by activation of humoral immune reaction in the context of HLA identical transplants and the absence of donor specific antibodies (17-24), strongly suggest the participation of non-HLA (nHLA) antibodies in ABMR (25). In this review, we discuss the genesis of ABMR in the context of HLA and nHLA antibodies and summarize strategies for ABMR management.

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