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Integrating the PILP-mineralization process into a restorative dental treatment.

  • Author(s): Bacino, Margot;
  • Girn, Vishavjeet;
  • Nurrohman, Hamid;
  • Saeki, Kuniko;
  • Marshall, Sally J;
  • Gower, Laurie;
  • Saeed, Ella;
  • Stewart, Ray;
  • Le, Thuan;
  • Marshall, Grayson W;
  • Habelitz, Stefan
  • et al.

The addition of charged polymers, like poly-aspartic acid (pAsp), to mineralizing solutions allows for transport of calcium and phosphate ions into the lumen of collagen fibrils and subsequent crystallization of oriented apatite crystals by the so-called Polymer-Induced Liquid Precursor (PILP) mineralization process, leading to the functional recovery of artificial dentin lesions by intrafibrillar mineralization of collagen. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the feasibility of applying the PILP method as part of a restorative treatment and test for effectiveness to functionally remineralize artificial lesions in dentin. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Two methods of providing pAsp to standardized artificial lesions during a restorative procedure were applied: (A) pAsp was mixed into commercial RMGI (resin modified glass ionomer) cement formulations and (B) pAsp was added at high concentration (25mg/ml) in solution to rehydrate lesions before restoring with a RMGI cement. All specimens were immersed in simulated body fluid for two weeks to allow for remineralization and then analyzed for dehydration shrinkage, integrity of cement-dentin interface, degree of mineralization, and changes in the nanomechanical profile (E-modulus) across the lesion. RESULTS:After the remineralization treatment, lesion shrinkage was significantly reduced for all treatment groups compared to demineralized samples. Pores developed in RMGI when pAsp was added. A thin layer at the dentin-cement interface, rich in polymer formed possibly from a reaction between pAsp and the RMGI. When analyzed by SEM under vacuum, most lesions delaminated from the cement interface. EDS-analysis showed some but not full recovery of calcium and phosphorous levels for treatment groups that involved pAsp. Nanoindentations placed across the interface indicated improvement for RMGI containing 40% pAsp, and were significantly elevated when lesions were rehydrated with pAsp before being restored with RMGI. In particular the most demineralized outer zone recovered substantially in the elastic modulus, suggesting that functional remineralization has been initiated by pAsp delivery upon rehydration of air-dried demineralized dentin. In contrast, the effectiveness of the RMGI on functional remineralization of dentin was minimal when pAsp was absent. SIGNIFICANCE:Incorporation of pAsp into restorative treatments using RMGIs promises to be a feasible way to induce the PILP-mineralization process in a clinical setting and to repair the structure and properties of dentin damaged by the caries process.

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