Skip to main content
Open Access Publications from the University of California


UC San Francisco Previously Published Works bannerUCSF

Renal Cell Carcinoma Metastatic to the Liver: Early Response Assessment after Intraarterial Therapy Using 3D Quantitative Tumor Enhancement Analysis.

  • Author(s): Fleckenstein, Florian Nima;
  • Schernthaner, Rüdiger Egbert;
  • Duran, Rafael;
  • Sohn, Jae Ho;
  • Sahu, Sonia;
  • Marshall, Karen;
  • Lin, MingDe;
  • Gebauer, Bernhard;
  • Chapiro, Julius;
  • Salem, Riad;
  • Geschwind, Jean-François
  • et al.


Liver metastases from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are not uncommon in the course of disease. However, data about tumor response to intraarterial therapy (IAT) are scarce. This study assessed whether changes of enhancing tumor volume using quantitative European Association for the Study of the Liver (qEASL) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) can evaluate tumor response and predict overall survival (OS) early after therapy.

Methods and materials

Fourteen patients with liver metastatic RCC treated with IAT (transarterial chemoembolization: n= 9 and yttrium-90: n= 5) were retrospectively included. All patients underwent contrast-enhanced imaging (MRI: n= 10 and CT: n= 4) 3 to 4 weeks pre- and posttreatment. Response to treatment was evaluated on the arterial phase using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST), World Health Organization, modified RECIST, EASL, tumor volume, and qEASL. Paired t test was used to compare measurements pre- and post-IAT. Patients were stratified into responders (≥65% decrease in qEASL) and nonresponders (<65% decrease in qEASL). OS was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier curves with log-rank test and the Cox proportional hazard model.


Mean qEASL (cm3) decreased from 93.5 to 67.2 cm3 (P= .004) and mean qEASL (%) from 63.1% to 35.6% (P= .001). No significant changes were observed using other response criteria. qEASL was the only significant predictor of OS when used to stratify patients into responders and nonresponders with median OS of 31.9 versus 11.1 months (hazard ratio [HR], 0.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.19-0.97; P= .042) for qEASL (cm3) and 29.9 versus 10.2 months (HR, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.01-0.74; P= .025) for qEASL (%).


Three-dimensional (3D) quantitative tumor analysis is a reliable predictor of OS when assessing treatment response after IAT in patients with RCC metastatic to the liver. qEASL outperforms conventional non-3D methods and can be used as a surrogate marker for OS early after therapy.

Many UC-authored scholarly publications are freely available on this site because of the UC's open access policies. Let us know how this access is important for you.

Main Content
For improved accessibility of PDF content, download the file to your device.
Current View