Skip to main content
Open Access Publications from the University of California


UC San Francisco Previously Published Works bannerUCSF

Human Papillomavirus Infection in Women in Puerto Rico



This study aimed to describe the prevalence and concordance between cervical and anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and compare cervicovaginal and anal self-collection methods for HPV testing between physician and self-collected specimens in women in Puerto Rico.

Materials and methods

Specimens for HPV-DNA testing were obtained from 100 women aged 18 to 34 years attending a general gynecology clinic for a routine Pap smear. Human papillomavirus testing was performed using polymerase chain reaction MY09/MY11 primers. Positive samples were typed for 39 genotypes. Agreement between sampling methods was determined by percent agreement and the κ statistic.


For the 39 genotypes evaluated, 38.4% (38/99) of cervicovaginal and 33.7% (30/89) of anal physician-collected samples were HPV+, whereas 35.1% (34/97) of cervicovaginal and 32.0% (31/97) of anal self-collected samples were positive. Human papillomavirus type 16 was the most common type identified in the cervix (8.3%, 8/97) and the anus (5.6%, 5/89) of physician-collected samples, with similar prevalence in self-collected samples. Concordance between cervical and anal HPV infection was high (>90%) for all types evaluated. There was a strong percent agreement between physician- and self-collected cervicovaginal and anal samples (>95% for all HPV types) and good to excellent agreement (κ > 0.60) for most HPV types.


The clinic-based prevalence of anal and cervicovaginal HPV infection was high, with a strong concordance between cervical and anal infection and good to excellent agreement between physician- and self-collected samples. This study supports the feasibility of using cervical and anal self-sampling methods in future population-based studies of HPV infection in Puerto Rico and as an HPV screening method in women.

Many UC-authored scholarly publications are freely available on this site because of the UC's open access policies. Let us know how this access is important for you.

Main Content
For improved accessibility of PDF content, download the file to your device.
Current View