Efficient smile detection by Extreme Learning Machine
- Author(s): An, L
- Yang, S
- Bhanu, B
- et al.
Published Web Locationhttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.neucom.2014.04.072
© 2014 Elsevier B.V. Smile detection is a specialized task in facial expression analysis with applications such as photo selection, user experience analysis, and patient monitoring. As one of the most important and informative expressions, smile conveys the underlying emotion status such as joy, happiness, and satisfaction. In this paper, an efficient smile detection approach is proposed based on Extreme Learning Machine (ELM). The faces are first detected and a holistic flow-based face registration is applied which does not need any manual labeling or key point detection. Then ELM is used to train the classifier. The proposed smile detector is tested with different feature descriptors on publicly available databases including real-world face images. The comparisons against benchmark classifiers including Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) suggest that the proposed ELM based smile detector in general performs better and is very efficient. Compared to state-of-the-art smile detector, the proposed method achieves competitive results without preprocessing and manual registration.