Glycosaminoglycan Interactions with Chemokines Add Complexity to a Complex System.
- Author(s): Proudfoot, Amanda EI
- Johnson, Zoë
- Bonvin, Pauline
- Handel, Tracy M
- et al.
Published Web Locationhttps://doi.org/10.3390/ph10030070
Chemokines have two types of interactions that function cooperatively to control cell migration. Chemokine receptors on migrating cells integrate signals initiated upon chemokine binding to promote cell movement. Interactions with glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) localize chemokines on and near cell surfaces and the extracellular matrix to provide direction to the cell movement. The matrix of interacting chemokine-receptor partners has been known for some time, precise signaling and trafficking properties of many chemokine-receptor pairs have been characterized, and recent structural information has revealed atomic level detail on chemokine-receptor recognition and activation. However, precise knowledge of the interactions of chemokines with GAGs has lagged far behind such that a single paradigm of GAG presentation on surfaces is generally applied to all chemokines. This review summarizes accumulating evidence which suggests that there is a great deal of diversity and specificity in these interactions, that GAG interactions help fine-tune the function of chemokines, and that GAGs have other roles in chemokine biology beyond localization and surface presentation. This suggests that chemokine-GAG interactions add complexity to the already complex functions of the receptors and ligands.