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Directed transport of neutrophil-derived extracellular vesicles enables platelet-mediated innate immune response.


The innate immune response to bacterial infections requires the interaction of neutrophils and platelets. Here, we show that a multistep reciprocal crosstalk exists between these two cell types, ultimately facilitating neutrophil influx into the lung to eliminate infections. Activated platelets adhere to intravascular neutrophils through P-selectin/P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1)-mediated binding, a primary interaction that allows platelets glycoprotein Ibα (GPIbα)-induced generation of neutrophil-derived extracellular vesicles (EV). EV production is directed by exocytosis and allows shuttling of arachidonic acid into platelets. EVs are then specifically internalized into platelets in a Mac1-dependent fashion, and relocated into intracellular compartments enriched in cyclooxygenase1 (Cox1), an enzyme processing arachidonic acid to synthesize thromboxane A2 (TxA2). Finally, platelet-derived-TxA2 elicits a full neutrophil response by inducing the endothelial expression of ICAM-1, intravascular crawling, and extravasation. We conclude that critical substrate-enzyme pairs are compartmentalized in neutrophils and platelets during steady state limiting non-specific inflammation, but bacterial infection triggers regulated EV shuttling resulting in robust inflammation and pathogen clearance.

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