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Open Access Publications from the University of California

A comparative study of graphite electrodes using the co-intercalation phenomenon for rechargeable Li, Na and K batteries


Here, we demonstrate that graphite can serve as a versatile electrode for various rechargeable battery types by reversibly accommodating solvated alkali ions (such as K, Na, and Li) through co-intercalation in its galleries. The co-intercalation of alkali ions is observed to occur via staging reactions. Notably, their insertion behaviors, including their specific capacity, are remarkably similar regardless of the alkali ion species despite the different solubility limits of K, Na, and Li ions in graphite. Nevertheless, the insertion potentials of the solvated alkali ions differ from each other and are observed to be correlated with the interlayer distance in the intercalated graphite gallery.

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